According to Callavaro (2006), what does Miyazaki think about happy endings, and how do manga and anime more generally diverge from Western narrative conventions?

The western three-act structure doesn’t apply or not popularize among Japanese manga and anime industries. As Callavaro (2016) explained “manga and animated series target audience intimately acquainted with their narrative content.” Anime, as an illustration, concentrates on daily life issues that closely relate to human emotions. The audience received emotions that were sketched, voiced and communicated and convey by animators. Miyazaki stated,” Their (characters) emotions will become yours.” Whereas Western cartoon studios like Pixar and Walt Disney trend to concentrate on unrealistic comedy like Madagascar and Toy Story to serve infancy and children. The majority of adolescent Japanese viewers expect an approach to a familiar sense of resonance that features popular culture or tendency amongst the indigenous young community. For example, girls dressed in Lolita style or boys were enthusiastically spirited. Even sometimes they were a marginalized cultural idea, Japanese aesthetics are stereotypically triggering our sentiments and granted such illustrated reality. 

Miyazaki’s cross-cultural tales are universally relevant thus his name has been singled out for decades. Over half of his films were less oriental since they set outside Japan such as rural Europe were also experienced the inevitable arrival of global industrialization. Regardless of the cultural differences, Miyazaki has consistently advocated Earth’s ecosystem and industrial consequences are always the universal responsibility that all human races ought to take. Thus, his films embedded both realism and fantasy. Miyazaki stylized his work despite by featuring powerful girls as a leading character or using 2D and hand drawing techniques frame by frame, his narration constructed the balance of fantasy and reality. In Spirited Away, Chihiro never had a hero journey because Miyazaki depicted her growth through her working experience in the Bathhouse. She was rewarded by her braveness and faith of love. Moreover, the silent train scene was the climax of the film where Miyazaki took the audience away from crowned modernism and returned to the true self. Films also widely inspirited by Shinto religion which spirits (Gods) must be respected but they are not absolute righteous and evil. Miyazaki introduced various kami in his masterpiece, Spirited Away through their entrance to the bathhouse. Spirits like river-god were devastatingly polluted by artificiality thus sought for purifying by bathing; some were evil as well as cruelty. Miyazaki refused stereotypical character design and story ending rather developed layers for characters. “The concept of portraying evil and then destroying it – I know this is considered mainstream, but I think it is rotten.” The director believes that there’s impossible for a monopoly justice practised in the complex society. “The Ghibli monsters seem mostly to derive from some terrifying past, and the magical beings are notable for an air of subtlety and, often, sympathy.”Plus, justice is a term of variety depends on the people living in a community. Therefore the Western convention is inapplicable in this case since there aren’t any absolute villainy against the protagonist. Even technology like the aeroplane wasn’t present as a negative concept of materialization in The Wind Rises. Consequently, Miyazaki advocated messages of anti-war, respect to nature and universal peace.  

Above all, Japanese anime and manga have not been regarded as inferior like cartoon amongst literature and popular culture. Therefore, both media have greatly adopted Japanese cultural performance such as literature, poetry and water painting techniques, even in the early days they were inspired by Western animation such as Walt Disney. Japanese animators had created and evolved their animation that separated from the Western cultural monopoly.

Sophie Tse 16912888

Scott, A.O. (2005) Where the Wild Things Are: The Miyazaki Menagerie. The New York Times. Retrieved from:

Cavallaro, D. (2006). Introduction. In The Anime Art of Hayao Miyazaki (pp.5-13). London: McFarland & Company. Retrieved from: file:///C:/Users/User/Desktop/Cavallaro%202006_Intro%20&%20Chapter%201.pdf

Yrd. Doç. Dr. Sibel ÇEL‹K NORMAN (),Miyazaki and the West: A Comparative Analysis of Narrative Structure in Animated Films for Children. Retrieved from:

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