4. Is anime a high or low cultural genre/media, according to Napier (2005)? How does she frame her discussion and argue her case?
Animation is a high cultural genre. Animation is a charming form of contemporary art expression, with a unique visual beauty. It returns to the Japanese tradition, but also to the forefront of art and media. Anime belongs to popular culture in Japan, but it is a subculture in the western countries. Ten years ago, anime was regarded as an intellectually challenging art form, as indicated by a large number of academic works. Anime popular culture is based on the previous highly traditional culture. Anime showcases the influence of traditional Japanese arts such as kabuki and this print, as well as drawing on the world art traditions of 20th-century cinema and photography. Anime presents problems in surprising ways that are familiar to readers and audience alike. In text, animation provides entertainment for audiences all over the world. It moves and stimulates the audience in the form of old art. Because of the popularity of animation, more widely attract a wide range of people. High-level cultural exchanges, which are not easy to do, do not. Therefore, whether from the perspective of sociology or aesthetics, animation is a cultural phenomenon worth taking seriously (Nappier, 2005).
The wide range of topics of animation reflects a mirror of contemporary society, providing today’s publication of major issues, dreams and nightmares. To be a force of commerce and commercial culture, animation has infected the whole world as a phenomenon. It plays an important role in transnational economy. For more and more non-Japanese enterprises operating animation, animation is an important part of Japan’s export market. At the same time, it also as a small but it grows part of the Japanese business world. Animation scale from small to large, from the small video rental business to send mail to everywhere. For instance, from Amazon.com to Walt Disney Enterprises. Although the influence of animation is small, it is attracting the attention of more and more marketers around the world. Animation as a cultural force is more attractive than its commercial aspects. Because anime brings a deep understanding of Japanese culture. As a kind of implicit cultural resistance, Japanese animation attracts people’s attention and is also a unique artistic product. At the same time, anime is a local form of popular culture that clearly shows its Japanese roots. It also exerts a broad influence outside Japan (Nappier, 2005).
Animation has become a commercial advantage in the western. In the 1960s, the United States extended Japan to the European market by adapting Japanese animation. It had also produced products for children in Europe and Japan and broadcast them in various countries. Italy, Spain and France, in particular, became interested in Japanese products because of their low prices. As a result, Italy has become the country that imports the most animation from Japan. These imports influenced the popularity of anime in South American, Arab and German markets (Pellitteri, 2014; Bendazzi, 2015). Animation is a type of popular culture in all over the world, which has important significance. However, it is also a cultural form whose themes and patterns transcend arbitrary aesthetic boundaries and have important artistic and psychological resonance (Nappier, 2005).
Bendazzi, G. (2015). Animation: A World History: Volume II: The Birth of a Style-The Three Markets. Routledge. Retrieved from: file:///C:/Users/dell/Downloads/9781315720753_googlepreview.pdf
Napier, S. (2005). Why anime? In Anime: from Akira to Howl’s Moving Castle (pp.3-14).
Pellitteri, M. (2014). The Italian anime boom: The outstanding success of Japanese animation in Italy, 1978–1984. Journal of Italian Cinema & Media Studies, 2(3), 363-381. Retrieved from: https://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/intellect/jicms/2014/00000002/00000003/art00004?crawler=true&casa_token=G9Bs5uBwnGQAAAAA:4v9zp7YEJ1vQTsVF-pcGcbjr5mplYtcJEf9C4smRIwYQke0YzS068SYNc-v_8SO3Lj_lifsrBALjDnMUJ8E