Week 11-12

Where do you think the future of reality television shows is heading?  Will new forms of technology for example make an impact? 

1. future of reality television shows is heading

The law of historical development tells us that the outbreak of reality show is not an accident, but a product of social development to a certain stage (Hill,2005).

The first reason is the development of information technology, which enables media companies to produce long videos recording the actions of famous public figures (stars) in the whole process, which can be quickly received and retained (repeated watching, if the reality show can only be seen once, and cannot be watched repeatedly, it is difficult to share and spread, after all, it is blank and powerless to describe someone’s looks and expressions by word-of-mouth. )In front of consumers.

The second reason is that with the improvement of material living standards, consumers are no longer satisfied with only enjoying the performances of stars, but also want to see the more real side of these public figures. So, based on these two main points, the reality show came into being, and it’s not surprising that it even presents a blowout.

What will be the impact on the future social development of reality TV programs that are now rampant?

From now on, in the hot reality show, it can be said that it is the world of reality show people, so in this period, it will reshuffle the influence of stars. The value of reality stars loved by the audience will rise rapidly, and vice versa. However, due to the limited aesthetic cognition of the audience, only a few stars will finally stand out and become superstars. At the same time, the eye-catching reality show has a strong rejection of other forms of programs other than reality show, and the impact on society is to further stimulate the public’s desire for performance, and want to stand on the stage, in front of the camera.

The rise of live broadcast websites stems from this. For the future, the fall of reality TV programs is inevitable. Most aesthetic needs are endless, it will fatigue, and then find new aesthetic objects. Even the superstars assumed above cannot be avoided. Moreover, with the rise of various live broadcast websites, the reality TV market will inevitably be eaten by more fragmented, timely and personalized live broadcast. After all, the quality of live broadcast is rising, and reality show has reached its peak, there is no room for rising.

2.Technology and the impact

The impact of technology on reality shows is obvious. The reason is that with the rapid development of society, people are not only satisfied with the most basic material desires, but also pursue more spiritual needs. Technology just meets this day and promotes the rapid development of a series of reality shows such as live broadcast (Lamb,2016). But the development of reality show is a little too fast because of the expansion of technology, which is not a good thing. Now the social demand for spiritual stimulation is also increasing (for example, a British reality show is about turning an ordinary person into a ‘murderer’ within 72 hours), which is actually a psychological defense challenge for actors.

Reference list:

Hill, A. (2005). Reality TV: Audiences and Popular Factual Television. London: Routledge.

Lamb, B. (2016). Cathy Come Off Benefits: A comparative ideological analysis of Cathy Come Home and Benefits Street. Journalism and Discourse Studies, (2), 2-21. 

Week 10

What role did the I Ching play in the novel’s composition and philosophical underpinning?

I Ching is an ancient Chinese classical literature, but it is interesting that it has become the fantasy foundation of many science fiction works in western literature. For example, Philip K. Dick’s 1962 new, the man in the high castle was written on what if Japan won at the parallel universes of World War II (Mountfort, 2018). The author uses a lot of historical reference elements and tries to imagine that scene with his imagination. The idea and the use of philosophical elements are all from this book.

More about the book of I Ching

I Ching gives me the feeling that it is a book about natural philosophy. Its purpose is to let you see the truth of human life in nature.

There are three main contents.

1. Everything in the world is relative rather than absolute.

2. Things that do not follow the laws of nature are ultimately dead end.

3. According to the laws of nature, we can infer what will happen in the future.

How do these ideas relate to science fiction?

There are three highlights in the The man in the high castle:

  1. the work is based on an elevated history, that is, the axis won the World War II and divided the world.
  2. The United States is divided into three parts: Japanese, German and neutral. America is also the main stage of the story.
  3.  Although it’s western science fiction, But the book of changes is an important element of the original. There is a book in the original book called locust disaster, which describes a world similar to the historical process of the real world and has a great impact on the characters in the story. It is a very interesting clue object.

Based on science, science fiction shows another realm of analysis, indicating a possible direction for the development of human civilization: assuming that science fiction focuses on the imagination of “outer space” material science and technology; fantasy is looking back on human’s own deep thinking and peeping into the endless “inner space” in human mind.

Science fiction is absolutely a unique form of creation in this era, breathing the fresh breath of this era.

Therefore, Darwin’s evolutionism, Einstein’s relativity, the development of nuclear energy after the Second World War, space navigation, computer electronics, robots and so on, have made great efforts to science fiction, brought science fiction into its golden age, and gradually jumped from supporting role status to a single literary system, and become increasingly popular.

With the development of society, the decline of religion, the freedom of thought, the expansion of science fiction, the ever-changing content, and the ever-changing themes: alien creatures, the future society, the fantastic extraterrestrial world, super time and space, human evolution and so on, there is no far to go, which makes people’s eyes open and their minds fly.

Novelists are no longer confined to the level of science, boldly cross the barrier of the material world, march into the “mysterious and mysterious” human spiritual realm, and explore the origin and ultimate, regeneration and destruction of things.

What’s more, it represents a reaction of human beings to the scientific and technological civilization, which improves the status of human beings and puts them above machines. With the spirit realm, we should break the material restriction and establish a man-centered world.

China’s I Ching, Laozhuang, Huangdi’s Internal Classic, Taoist Scriptures, yin and Yang education, lay a theory that is neither mysterious nor mysterious, and explore the mysterious relationship between heaven and earth.

Based on Western science fiction and Chinese metaphysics, we have developed unique works to create a new world of fantasy novels (HUANG, 2003) .

Science fiction brings literature into a new field, enabling human imagination to soar freely, to enter into the past, the future, the present or far-off time and space and country, to conceive any possible changes and things, and to search for the deep secrets of the universe.

Reference list:

HUANG, Y. (2003). super brain. 2nd ed. Culture and Art Press, pp.1-10.

Mountfort, P. (2016). The I Ching and Philip K. Dick’s The Man in the High Castle. Science Fiction Studies43(2), pp.287-309. doi:10.5621/sciefictstud.43.2.0287

Mountfort, P. (2018). Science fiction doubles: Technologization of the doppelganger and sinister science in serial science fiction TV. Journal of Science & Popular Culture1(1), pp.59-75. doi:10.1386/jspc.1.1.59_1.


What is a workable definition of cosplay?

Cosplay is a subculture / fan culture activity with high visibility in the mass media, but only limited to the surface visibility. In fact, the public is in a state of half understanding and often stereotyped and biased towards cosplay (“Cosplay”, 2019) .

Cosplay is the fan culture of anime. Anime fans take costumes as their characters to express their love for anime in the gathering of anime fans, rather than a “show yourself” youth entertainment.

Cosplay has been developing in Taiwan for ten years. The number of participants is increasing day by day, the activity force is more and more vigorous, and the activities are held more and more frequently. However, in recent years, there have been major differences within cosplay. The disputes are: is Lolita / self-created a Cosplay? Where is the boundary of cosplay?

In order to explore the solution to this problem, first should returns to the source of cosplay – holography, and the motivation of producing homograph – Homo spirit, to redefine cosplay, establish the scope of cosplay, and analyze the practice and activity mode of cosplay, starting from the practice of cosplay, to study the causes of differences.

Cosplay is an activity closely related to photography in terms of activity mode. Cosplay community uses photography to record, share and communicate. The online album represents a member’s identity and is the foundation of building a community. Therefore, by analyzing the function and significance of cosplay using photography, we can find out the influence of photography on cosplay. Because of cosplay’s extensive use of photography, another ethnic group – Photography players can participate in Cosplay’s activities in a large number and actively. The photography habits and activities of photography players make

Cosplay’s community composition, activity space and spiritual significance began to change from “human culture” to “visual culture”.

The so-called “fans” refers to the people who are extremely fond of and identify with, or even obsessed with, specific media texts such as stars, movies, TV programs, pop orchestras, brands, etc., and can interpret the texts in various ways to produce their own interpretations. In addition to interpretation, fans are more able to produce their own texts through the original texts. They exchange ideas with each other and form a community rather than a group of alienated individuals (Marchese, 2017) .

“Homograph” and “Cosplay” are one of the expressions of fan interpretation text in anime painting. “「同人誌」i” was originally a Japanese Chinese character. It refers to the cartoon or other kinds of art works created by the fans with their favorite anime works as the theme. In Western terms, 「同人誌」 is a kind of “Fan Art”. Cosplay is a cartoon fan who imitates the appearance and performance of a character by wearing similar costumes, matching props, makeup and body language.

With the popularity of Japanese anime, the “fan culture” of Japanese Anime – 「同人誌」and cosplay – was also introduced into the world in the early 1990s (Garon, 2017) . Opened the era of business companies holding activities with others 4. From self-financing to business operation, the scale of 「同人誌」Fair has become larger and larger, also with the amount of people who are interested in cosplay.

Reference List:

Cosplay. (2019). Retrieved 20 October 2019, from https://zh.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cosplay

Marchese, C. (2017). Setting Cosplay in Motion. IEEE Potentials36(4), 44-46. doi: 10.1109/mpot.2017.2684246

Garon, J. (2017). Fandom and Creativity, Including Fan Art, Fan Fiction, and Cosplay. SSRN Electronic Journal. doi: 10.2139/ssrn.3007404


What genres/subgenres of anime can you identify?

“アニメ” generally refers to animation. Nowadays, the word “anime” is often used to describe those Celluloid animation (Japanese animation).

After the 1970s, cartoons (and a few novels) were adapted into animation by most Japanese animation companies. Many animation companies are paying attention to injecting culture into characters and stories, and also correcting the content of the original cartoon. Contrary to what we imagine, most animations are for children and teenagers. The animation industry is almost just a supplement to the cartoon industry. Few animations are aimed at college age, so most adult comic readers don’t care about animation. By the end of the 1980s, animation had reached the peak of his economic development. Now those famous cartoons and animations have to turn to video games (“Japanese anime”, 2019).

Action anime (with friendship, effort and desire of winning)

Throughout the spirit of “friendship, hard work, want to win”, advocate the value of bravery, kindness, struggle, hard work and responsibility. Readers of different ages and personalities can find a sympathetic role in the hot-blooded animation. At the same time, Japanese hot-blooded animation is a growing animation, the reader is growing, the author is growing, the author projects his own experience and thinking in his works, so that the plot reflects the current situation and changes of society.


The subject matter is extensive, including any instrument, robot or machine device. In particular, “giant robots” seem to have emerged from films like Godzilla. Mechanical design seems to have made animation works reach a high stage, but it is not an important condition for the success of cartoons.


“Theatre Film”. As the name says, it is known as “theatre animation”, which has a simple plot and is very similar to the usual theatre movies. The characteristics are straightforward, plain and direct narration, realistic doctrine and simple characters. Such writers as Baitu Sanping and Xidu. Drama was very popular in the 1960s (Drama is a genre of cartoons). Later, even Tomb Tortoise introduced elements of drama into his stories. But dramas are declining. It’s hard to see his shadow in teenage cartoons now, although there’s a market for this type of readership over the age of 40.


Literally, it means “like publications”. Comrades refer to groups of authors with the same style, not just animations or cartoons. A group of Comrade writers are called a “faction”. In the cartoon group, comrades now refer to amateur writers, those who publish their own cartoons, especially those who draw on existing cartoons or animations.


It is the abbreviation of “no end, no aim, no meaning”. This kind of cartoon is characterized by the description of gay men, usually using the characters in popular stories. It is also called “Boys’love” or “shotacom”. The development of

Manga first appeared in the early 1980s and has a related magazine “June” (June is called “Delayed Beauty” magazine). Now there are many such comic magazines and comrades have many such works. It can be said that football teenager cartoons such as Big Air Wing also promoted the development of cartoons, and comrades now dominate. Although comrades have become saturated, big publishers tend to use such cartoons to compensate for the money lost in comics.

Nakashima is a famous writer and critic of the category of “juvenile love”.

Reference list

Zhihu (2019). Retrieved 29 September 2019, from https://www.zhihu.com/search?type=content&q=%E5%8A%A8%E6%BC%AB%E5%88%86%E7%B1%BB

Japanese anime, Baidu wiki. (2019). Retrieved 29 September 2019, from https://baike.baidu.com/item/%E6%97%A5%E6%9C%AC%E5%8A%A8%E6%BC%AB/8993244

week 7

How would you characterize Hergé’s politics, and how did they apparently change over time?

In my opinion Hergé’s politics has two stage, one is the original stereotype of himself, the other is he has been attacked by Chinese culture.

First step:

Tintin on Soviet Land, the first book of Tintin, was elaborately compiled according to the orders of Hergay’s superiors and was a limited perspective of anti-Soviet propaganda.

Still, Hutch worked willingly: “I’m sure I’m on the right track,” he said later. His only source was Moscou Sans voiles, written by Joseph douillet, a former Belgian consul in the Soviet Union in 1928. In this book, Dudley, less than a decade after the October Revolution, condemns the Communist system for causing poverty, famine and terror. The secret police maintain order and spread deception to foreigners. However, the anti-totalitarian theme of the first book will run through the series. Here the author is also a cartoonist who obeys the orders of his superiors to publish (“Herge: the man who created Tintin”, 2010) . [I think Tintin here is also wonderful, but he has no soul of his own, nor reflects the real human design. In my opinion, Tintin is a heroic person.]

Tintin’s presence in Congo reflected the dominant colonial ideology at that time. As Herg said in subsequent interviews, “It was 1930. My understanding of Congo was what people thought of it at that time: “Black people are big children, and we are lucky to be there to support them, and so on.”

Belgium’s paternalistic description of Congolese indigenous peoples is more childish than racism. In this book, Herg develops an important theme of Tintin: international trafficking. Later stories were also influenced by the threat of World War II, followed by the war itself and the Nazi occupation of Belgium.

The Blue Lotus in the later works is a work which is different from others and has the author’s own ideas in my opinion. From a Chinese perspective, looking at that period of history, I am also curious why the author described China so much [Tintin’s description of China is particularly mild compared to other works of the same period]

Second step:

In Blue Lotus, Hergre euphemistically expresses the feeling of re-understanding China: Detective Thomson Brothers came to China in the 1930s with their Ling Ting and long gowns and jackets and thought that they had to dress up like Chinese people. As a result, they were surrounded and ridiculed by people and made a fool of themselves. Of course, what’s more important is that Blue Lotus takes Zhang Chongren as its prototype and portrays a Chinese child named Zhang Zhongren. He is modest and brave, risking his life to fight with the Japanese army, helping Tintin defeat the drug traffickers and embodying the dignity and courage of the Chinese people in the face of the national crisis. In this work, there are also a lot of Chinese elements that make Chinese readers feel more cordial, such as restaurants and restaurants with Chinese plaques, rickshaw drivers, blue and white porcelain, cheongsam and so on. They are authentic Chinese goods. The Chinese characters with elegant wording or characteristics of the times, such as “lucky celebration”, “casual drinks”, “abolition of unequal treaties”, “the world is for the public” and “overthrowing Japanese imperialism”, all came from Zhang Chongren’s hands. In particular, on a notice of the Japanese army’s wanted Tintin, the Chinese character “offering a reward for the arrest of the murderer Tin” was clearly written, and “TinTin” was thus given the official Chinese translation. By actively assisting Herge, Zhang became the most famous Chinese in French-speaking countries. The name of Zhang Zhongren is known to as many as 1 billion people in Western countries (“Herge: the man who created Tintin”, 2010) .

From this process we can see a qualitative change in Tintin’s author’s thinking. One has changed from a purely racist mind to a pluralistic and inclusive one. A writer sees more of the world and has a wider horizon, which affects his thinking of painting.

Reference list:

Mountfort, P. (2011). ‘Yellow skin, black hair… Careful, Tintin’: Hergé and Orientalism. Australasian journal of popular culture, 1(1), 33-49.

Mountfort, P. (2016). Tintinas spectacle: The backstory of a popular franchise and late capital. Journal of Asia-Pacific Pop Culture, 1(1), 37-56.

Herge: the man who created Tintin. (2010). Choice Reviews Online47(10), 47-5459-47-5459. doi: 10.5860/choice.47-5459

week 6

Week 6


Wilcox and Lavery (2002) identify 9 defining characteristics of ‘quality TV’ – can you apply (with justifications) any of the 9 characteristics on this list to another TV series (including those on Netflix, etc.) that you have viewed recently? Are there any other characteristics that you could add to their list?

9 defining characteristics of ‘quality TV’

Quality TV usually has a quality directors and guidance line-up.

High rating and quality shows must often also can be accept with audience of minority culture.

Quality TV tends to have a large ensemble cast, a huge cast of famous actors

Quality TV has a memory (story). It will make everyone who have seen remember the story and characters.

Quality TV creates a new genre by mixing old ones. (creativity)

Quality TV tends to be literary and writer based.

Quality TV is self-conscious.

The subject matter of quality TV tends toward the controversial.

Quality TV aspires toward ‘realism (Wilcox and Lavery,2002)

[the point I add] Charming Characters (personality)


In my opinion, the best quality TV is The Big Bang Theory

A good-looking play always has such charm that every character in it will be like a partner in your life. The big bang theory has these points,

  • Famous background

The Big Bang Theory is an American television sitcom created by Chuck Lorre and Bill Prady, both of whom served as executive producers on the series, along with Steven Molaro. All three also served as head writers. The show premiered on CBS on September 24, 2007 and concluded on May 16, 2019, having broadcast a total of 279 episodes over 12 seasons (“The Big Bang Theory”, 2019) .

  • High rating and large ensemble cast

The show was nominated for the Emmy Award for Outstanding Comedy Series from 2011 to 2014 and won the Emmy Award for Outstanding Lead Actor in a Comedy Series four times for Jim Parsons. It has so far won seven Emmy Awards from 46 nominations. Parsons also won the Golden Globe for Best Actor in a Television Comedy Series in 2011. The series has so far won 56 awards from 216 nominations. It has also spawned a prequel series in 2017 based on Parsons’ character, Sheldon Cooper, named Young Sheldon, which also airs on CBS.

  • Additionally, the big bang theory has memory in my heart:

A good-looking play always has such charm that every character in it will be like a partner in your life.Ten seasons down, perhaps we have already forgotten some of the plots, but these characters, but very real in our minds, life.

  • Toward ‘realism

Some people say that such a group of people, in the play looks particularly lovely, but if in real life, it would be terrible, it is estimated that the collapse of long ago.

In fact, I often wonder, in life, where are we better than them?

It seems not. Vanity, paranoia, selfishness, quarrel, etc. What is it that we don’t have?

You said that Shelton, such a grinder, must have cut off his contacts long ago in life.

In fact, we are not as determined as we would like to be. Most of us are Leonard. Many times, when we encounter something unsatisfactory, we will tolerate it; we think we don’t like it, but in fact, we can’t express dislike at all – but sometimes life is really magical, sometimes we meet real “bad people”, sometimes we meet like thanks. That’s what Dalton is like – a wonderful flower, but a warm person.

Ultimately, we all got together and settled, and somehow became friends.

I like the temperature of the play very much. Looking at them as silly as day by day for ten years and looking at the small changes that have taken place on them, the sense of temperature of time, mingled with the temperature of their stories, constitutes a warm color in many of our blanks in life.

  • Creativity and literary and writer based

The four protagonists of the drama are bookworms with high IQ, which contrasts sharply with Penny’s social ability and dependence on common sense, making the whole play full of comedy. It is full of all kinds of real scientific knowledge, which was not thought of by TV dramas before.

Reference list

Wilcox, R. & Lavery, D. (2002). Introduction, in R. Wilcox & D. Lavery (eds) Fighting the Forces: What’s at Stake in Buffy the Vampire Slayer. Lanham: Rowman and Littlefield.

Hills, M. (2004). Defining cult TV; Texts, inter-texts and fan audiences, in R. C. Allen & A. Hill (eds) The Television Studies Reader. London and New York: Routledge.

The Big Bang Theory. (2019). Retrieved 26 August 2019, from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Big_Bang_Theory

week 5

What role does Hills (2004) suggest the fans play in the construction of cult TV? How is new media central to this?

  • Fan culture                                                              

Fan culture research rose in the late 1980s, and then became the focus of media culture research. An American cultural scholar published his book “Text Poachers: TV Fans and Participatory Culture”, which has made a thorough study of fans of Star Trek series of science fiction dramas and is regarded as the classic founding work of fans’ research (Culbertson, 1993).

They believe that “infatuation, admiration or worship” alone is not enough to identify the characteristics of fans. Fans are not only regular viewers of specific programs, but also translate this viewing behavior into some types of cultural activities. They share ideas and feelings about the content of programs with friends, and even join the discussion community.

Famous scholar Fiske defines “fans” as excessive readers in Understanding Popular Culture. He believes that fans’ behavior is usually active, participatory and fanatical.

Fan culture is a kind of cultural form which depends on popular culture. Fan culture refers to the cultural consumption of an individual or a group, which is caused by the psychology of worship and applause for a virtual object or a real object in their hearts, and a comprehensive cultural media and society that generates excessive consumption and unpaid labor time for their favorite objects. The sum of cultural phenomena.

The Internet provides an open communication structure based on individuals. Such an open and decentralized network will be conducive to the formation of an open society and culture, thus forming a truly independent individual. New media play a key role for fans’culture to exert its productivity. Because of its low threshold, wide range of timely and rapid dissemination, and strong openness, micro-blogging, forums and post bars have become popular communication platforms for fans: providing huge resources to meet fans’ information needs for idols; strong interaction to draw fans closer. The distance between silk and idols; the virtual environment provides a place of communication for subcultural groups that are not accepted by the mainstream values. In this environment, contemporary fans and their cultural practices show many aspects.

  • New media and fan culture are closely related                                                                           

New media can be said to be the basis for the birth of a complete fan economy. Fan economy has greatly promoted the development and deformity of new media. In conclusion, the new media also called fan economy.

Fan economy generally refers to the business income-generating behavior based on the relationship between fans and followers. It is a business operation mode that gains economic and social benefits by enhancing user stickiness and by word-of-mouth marketing. Previously, most of the people concerned were stars, idols and celebrities, such as fans in the music industry to buy singer albums, concert tickets, and stars like or endorse products. Now, the Internet has broken through the constraints of time and space. Fan economy has been widely used in cultural entertainment, selling goods, providing services and other fields. With the help of a certain platform, merchants gather circles of friends and fans through a certain point of interest to provide fans with diversified and personalized goods and services, and ultimately convert into consumption, to achieve profitability.

Reference list:

Culbertson, H. (1993). Textual poachers: Television fans and participatory culture. Public Relations Review19(3), 307-308. doi: 10.1016/0363-8111(93)90051-d

Larsen, K., & Zubernis, L. S. (2012). Fan culture: theory/practice. Cambridge Scholars. Retrieved from http://search.ebscohost.com.ezproxy.aut.ac.nz/login.aspx?direct=true&db=cat05020a&AN=aut.b16323506&site=eds-live

Hills, M. (2004). Defining cult TV; Texts, inter-texts and fan audiences, in R. C. Allen & A. Hill (eds) The Television Studies Reader. London and New York: Routledge.