The Continuous Story of Spirited Away

Act 1 (the full text continues the story from the perspective of Chihiro)

Bid farewell to the Haku, No-face, Yubaba and everyone in the world of mysterious disappearance, I returned to the human world with my parents to continue to start a new life. I still remember how much I missed Haku and everyone in the world of mysterious disappearance. Before the first few weeks that I entered the new school. Every time I passed the school jungle, I longed to cross the jungle to meet Haku again. At night I started opening the window, looking up at the sky and thinking how nice it would be to suddenly see a white dragon. Those a few nights sleep of time, I always take the lucky head bond that Zeniba gave me to see in the hand, think: what are Zeniba doing in this time? Are you happily weaving with the faceless man?

“Will we meet again there?”


“Must be?”


With Haku this dialogue and the promise I have been in mind, until now also lingering. So much so that at that time, whenever I looked at the vast expanse of the night sky, I remembered this conversation. With the passage of time, I put this miss silently in my heart, the promise into the power of my life, thinking: we will meet again one day!

Act 2

It is sunny today. The morning sun slanted on the corner of my bed, I lay in bed, looking at the ceiling and thinking about how to solve the problem that the chemistry teacher told me in the chemistry class yesterday. At the same time, I was thinking about which high school I would go to in the future. “Chihiro, get up! Going to school!” “Chihiro, come and eat the breakfast daddy prepared for you! … Very delicious…”I’m used to my parents interrupting my thoughts every time I think about something. The examination results would be coming out today. On the way to school I found that the students are walking very fast to know their results immediately. For students with good grades, receiving grades are a common thing; for someone like me who always get the lower grades, this means that my pocket money will be gone again this month, and even sometimes I will be laughed at by my classmates. Looking at the test paper handed out from the teacher, the “50” written in red pen greeted me, which made my mood become depressed. I chose to sit quietly on the seat did not speak, silently waiting for the end of school time. When I was silently waiting for school time, I suddenly felt several figures trying to approach me. “Chihiro, how many points did you get on this test?” “Let me guess, the last one or the last two one this time?” “Such a ‘smart’ person as Chihiro, this test must be the number one in the class! It’s just the number one upside down hahaha.” Every time I face the ridicule of these students, I would like to find a gap on the ground drilling. However, I couldn’t argue with them. My grades were really bad. If they laughed at me for my poor grades and incompetence, at best I would ignore them. However, the words of these students are really too bad today, I cannot bear the anger and sadness in the heart, and I directly cried from the school ran away.

Act 3

Perhaps because I was so sad, I suddenly lost my way in the process of running home from school. What I saw in front of me was a quiet forest. It was twelve o ‘clock at noon. It was the autumn season, and the sun was shining down on the earth. Facing this endless forest, I began to become confused. Should I step in or stay put? I kept looking at the surroundings, which I had never seen before. Where am I? My heart was in a mess, and I kept wandering around the entrance to the forest. Then I suddenly felt someone calling me, “Chihiro! Chihiro!” I looked around and there was someone there. “Who is it? Why do you know my name?” I asked. “It’s me, Haku. Chihiro.” Haku replied.

“Haku! We finally meet! You don’t know how much I miss you after I come back! … “

“We’ll save that for another time, Chihiro. Now I have something urgent to ask you for…”

Before I could finish, Haku began to tell his story. The original four years ago after I returned to the human world, Haku no longer become Yubaba’s disciple. Because Yubaba’s ambition is too big, she wanted to manipulate the whole world of mysterious disappearance for a time. The atmosphere of the whole world of mysterious disappearance became miasmatic, and the deities who lived in the world of the deities were fed up with this control. Haku and those in the spirit of the world of people who work together to drive Yubaba out of the spirit of the world, now the spirit of the world and restore harmony and peace. See the spirit of the world to restore calm, then left Haku. Haku left the world of gods and spirits, became nowhere to go and kept flying back and forth in the sky every day. A chance, Haku fly tired will stay in a forest without a name. Here, Haku made friends with many other species of animals.

“Then……What can I do for you? If it is for Haku, I will do my best to help you.”

“This time for your help…”

“Haku! what’s wrong with you?!”

“The forest…The mysterious forest…”Perhaps because of the bad signal, my conversation with Haku soon ended. From the tone of Haku’s voice, I can imagine that something must have happened in the mysterious forest, and this must be very important to Haku. According to the known clue is mysterious forest, and in front of me is a forest, I have “must help Haku” mentality without hesitation into the mysterious forest, to see what happened.

As I entered the forest, I moved forward cautiously, afraid of meeting and disturbing terrible creatures. It’s a big forest, after all, and back when I was a kid watching Animal World, it was full of unknown creatures. Just as I was thinking about encountering something scary or unknown, a group of animals came running in my direction and I heard someone say, “Run, the polar bears of the arctic kingdom are invading our territory again!”. I ran with the animals at the sight and managed to find a place to hide. Before I could sit down, a standing brown bear appeared in front of me.

“Hi! Are you from the human world?”

“Yes. How do you know I’m from the human world?”

“Haku once told me that he came into contact with a girl from the human world in the hidden world opposite this forest…”

In the conversation, I realized that the brown bear named Mouffy had once saved Haku, so Haku wanted to help Mouffy’s family and the polar bear family to solve their problems. However, because the world of mysterious disappearance just returned to peace, the world of mysterious disappearance people also needs Haku back to help them build a harmonious world. That’s why I was sent to help Mouffy’s family instead of Haku.

 “So why are you brown bears fighting the polar bears?”

“That’s a long story. A long time ago, I was friends with a white bear named Lope. From time to time, Lope would come to the mysterious forest to play. Especially when it comes to hibernation, we both compete to see who has more food for the winter. He who has more food is the winner. However, after each visit to the mysterious forest, Lope returned to the polar bear kingdom with a fever. As a result, Lope did not visit the mysterious forest for several years. Instead, they often complain about why they can’t come to live in the mysterious forest. Every time we complain, we take over our chassis.”

“What now?”

“… So, the arctic kingdom sent a message of war to our forests. As long as we beat the ice bears at the winter stockpiling contest, they won’t be there. The thing is I’ve hurt my paw and foot lately, eh…”

“I’ll do it. I’ll help you.”

I wonder who gave me the courage to say this. Despite Mouffy’s insistence that winter stockpiling is not a one-day success, I accepted the challenge. After Mouffy explained that stockpiling for the winter was a skill thing, he began to teach me how to do it. I didn’t cry or give up when Mouffy taught me how to stock up. Because I didn’t think I was capable of doing it. I had expected Mouffy’s attitude to be the same as my parents, disappointed in me and quietly leaving in search of the next person to take his place. Instead, Mouffy encouraged me and told me that only by making myself strong could others look up to me. Fear is not only a little bit, but also to stabilize themselves must not give up. Every time you can’t hold on or lose your composure, remember to take a deep breath. With Mouffy’s encouragement, I went back to practice and finally defeated Lope, ending the war between them. Lope and Mouffy are back together. Just as I was pondering how to return to the human world, my cell phone suddenly rang. It was my mother who called me. Finally, I returned to the entrance of the forest and went back to the human world to continue my life.


My fanfiction is a sequel to Spirited Away. The whole story is divided into three acta. The first act is a review of the end of Spirited Away. Because this fan fiction is a sequel, in order to let readers understand the story of the context, so in the beginning of the story of the content of the previous novel has an explanation, that is, a brief description of the background of this fan fiction. In the second act, I explained the cause of the story. As a Japanese intermediate school student, Chihiro was discriminated against and even bullied by several classmates because of her poor academic performance. However, Chihiro did not improve after she told the teacher about this situation. Then she had the idea of escaping from reality. In the end of the Spirited Away, Zeniba gave her a lucky bond in the shadow of the traction of her back to the world of mysterious disappearance. The third act is the climax of my fan fiction, which mainly tells the story that in the weird world, Chihiro is unwittingly involved in the battle between the polar bear and the brown bear, which leads to another story. Later, Chihiro defeated the polar bear and reclaimed the brown bear’s territory. Chihiro also learned how to self-reliance, understand only their own strong, will overcome the discrimination. Eventually, Chihiro returns to the human world.

In my fan fiction, I follow the following narrative patterns.

The Story of Humanity

When people come into close contact with their new galactic neighbors, they are expressing human stories, experiences, histories, thoughts and beliefs on behalf of humans and earth (Welle, n.d.). In my fan fiction, Chihiro represents human beings on earth, and her cognition of things and methods of handling things represent human society. For example, the pressure of going to school and campus violence in Chihiro reflect the phenomenon in our real society. People and things in the other world represent alien civilizations. The whole sequel story describes Chihiro from the earth to the strange world, which implied the story between earth and aliens.

Collective journey

Jeff Gomez, one of the world’s leading storytellers, has pointed out that collective journeys are an emerging form of storytelling that is non-linear, because the various aspects of the story can be tangent to each other or confused by multilateral factors within the story (Welle, n.d.). In my fan fiction, Chihiro is not only used as a clue to describe the development of the story, but also developed another parallel story clue, namely the struggle between polar bear and brown bear. With the development of the two stories, Chihiro is also involved in the struggle between polar bear and brown bear. This is the story of the various aspects of the tangent, but also intertwined development.

The collective journey is a non-linear, multi-platform, physical and digital experience, the story of several different people, groups, tribes, cultures, networks. This narrative approach puts events into both physical and digital interactions in cyberspace. Our journey into outer space, technological advances, mobile and urban life, and the Internet have all created the conditions for the rise of collective travel (Welle, n.d.). In my fan fiction, there is a story line is integrated into the Internet elements. That is, when Chihiro goes to the weird world again, she carries a communication device that helps her connect to the Internet, so that she can contact her parents who live on earth. It provided a turning point for her return to the human world. The introduction of this element expresses the technological development of the human world and provides a reasonable explanation for the development of the plot.


Welle, D. (n.d.). The Collective Journey: A Dynamic New Storytelling Model. Retrieved from:

Week 10

1.According to Mountfort (2016), what makes TMITHC a stand-out example of the alternate history (or uchronie) genre?

The Man in The High Castle” is an American novel created by Philip dick. With the plot of “The Book of Changes”, it tells a reversed “history” through the interweaving description of characters of different classes and identities, that is, the “Axis powers” became the victory side of the second world war. The novel is credited with defining a new literary genre, alternate history. The book of changes in China is an extensive and profound philosophical book of dialectics, which provides a theoretical basis for predicting the law of development of things. According to Mountfort (2016), The Book of Changes provides a philosophical theory for the creation of the novel the man in the high castle, namely the concept of simultaneity or the coincidental occurrence of meaningful events. However, the western interpretation of the development of things is based on causality. The two are completely different. The concept of The I Ching is introduced into the novel, which provides a new style for the novel, that called alternate history.

In The Man in The High Castle, the I Ching introduces an element of contingency, which indicates that other possibilities may exist in different time and space, because perhaps other hexagrams were cast in different realities (Everett & Halpern, 2013). This is also consistent with the view of some scholars that The Man in The High Castle is a maze of multiple universes. This phenomenon can also be explained by the many worlds of quantum physics (MWI). In addition, “The Man in The High Castle” uses one of the most popular themes in the field of alternative history, namely that the Nazis won world war ii (Rosenfeld, 2002). This theme also makes it a prominent example of alternative historical categories. High Castle’s hinge includes the assassination of President franklin Roosevelt by Giuseppe Zangara in 1934.The New Deal was never made, and the Great Depression and us isolationism continued. Hitler conquered Europe and the Soviet union, Japan, China, India and Oceania, Italy (with Nazi help), Africa. Japan invaded the west coast of the United States, the Nazi east coast and South America. The rocky mountain states became a buffer of quasi-freedom (Mountfort, 2016).

Because The Man in The High Castle does not adopt the traditional view of time, which is based on the linear and causal view of time. Instead, it takes a diachronic view of time, so the story is more “synchronic”. The author believes in the multiple coexistence of factors or facts, that everything is a whole, that reality is a seamless web. Such a clever arrangement of complex issues such as time and history make it superior to other alternative historical genres in terms of literary quality and depth of knowledge. That’s why “The Man in The High Castle” stands out in the alternate history category. As an example of alternate history, the novel’s philosophical complexity allows it to transcend the constraints of other types of fiction, making the plot both mysterious and well explained. Thus, the high castle is probably the most famous of all the alternate histories (Hellekson, 2002).


Everett, J., & Halpern, P. (2013). Spacetime as a Multicursal Labyrinth in Literature with Application to Philip K. Dick’s The Man in the High Castle. KronoScope13(1), 47-66. Retrieved from:

Hellekson, K. (2000). Toward a Taxonomy of the Alternate History Genre. Extrapolation41(3), 248-256. Retrieved from:

Mountfort, P. (2016). The I Ching and Philip K. Dick’s The Man in the High Castle. Science Fiction Studies43(2), 287-309. Retrieved from:

Rosenfeld, G. (2002). Why do we ask “what if?” Reflections on the function of alternate history. History and Theory41(4), 90-103. Retrieved from:

Week 12

3.Where do you think the future of reality television shows is heading?  Will new forms of technology for example make an impact? 

It is well known that reality TV shows became popular worldwide as a dominant type of TV program in the early 21st century. From the success of Survivor and Big Brother in the us, reality shows have developed rapidly since then. Among them, Survivor and American Idol have the highest ratings in the United States. It is foreseeable that reality shows will continue to be welcomed by the audience. Reality TV becomes an important member of TV programs in the near future. This is mainly related to the development factors of reality shows and new production technologies (Ikoro, Omessah & Ekevere, 2015).

Cherry (2008) believes that there are several factors contributing to the development of reality TV. The first factor is television’s struggle with other media outlets. Both pay-tv DVDS and the Internet have eroded free TV’s status as the primary media channel. As a result, reality shows provide a unique and, more importantly, cheap form of programming for free-to-air stations. The second factor is the economy, where reality TV has saved television from being replaced by competing media such as the Internet, DVDs and movies. As these shows have grown in popularity, so has their ability to generate revenue for broadcasters and show owners. The third factor is that on the social and cultural level, reality TV shows have an undeniable huge impact on contemporary society. Reality TV has been praised and criticized for a variety of reasons that are largely bordering on moral. Despite these shortcomings, its prospects are great because it involves issues of interest and concern to mankind. Based on these three factors, reality TV will continue to revolutionize the TV viewing experience.

The new production technology will promote the further development of reality shows. First of all, the application of digital camera not only makes the program picture more abundant, but also saves the shooting time and reduces the production cost. It is now much cheaper to shoot everything with more cameras, allowing studios to shoot from multiple angles and in more diverse ways. Secondly, the emergence of digital imaging technology makes the post-production of reality shows easier. It not only has great advantages in screening a large number of shots, but also has advantages in the synthesis of audio and video. Some large sensor DSLRS can capture stunning images, but not the same realistic and effortless audio. As a result, a second recording device is sometimes used, which doubles the number of documents taken at one time: one set from the camera and the other from the recording device. In this dual-system scenario, digital imaging groups video files with audio files, making it easier for audio files to find and synchronize all video files after they are published. This simplifies the post-production process and saves time and money in the long run. The new form of technology has changed the way reality shows are shot and edited and promoted the further development of reality shows (Reality TV and the New Future of Digital Production, n.d.).


Cherry, K. L. (2008). Reality TV and interpersonal relationship perceptions (Doctoral dissertation, University of Missouri–Columbia). Retrieved from:

Ikoro, E. A., Omessah, C. C., & Ekevere, F. O. (2015). Reality Television or Television Reality Shows: Forms, Genres and Modes. Department of Fine Applied Art, University of Benin, Benin City, Nigeria, 385-386. Retrieved from:

Reality TV and the New Future of Digital Production. (n.d.). Retrieved October 27, 2019, from:

week 11

2.What effects do you think that reality television has on society when programmes such as the Jeremy Kyle Show are labelled as ‘tabloid trash’ and docu-soaps such as Benefits Street are called ‘poverty porn’?

Since the popularization of reality TV, it has been pursued by the public and brought great influence to the society. The programs range from crime, celebrity, dating and love shows to extreme body modification of characters and families, which causes great debates in the society. These influences include creating fake events like misleading editors, participants’ behavioral guidance, advance stories, staged scenes, etc. The affection also contains manipulating winners, insulting or exploiting exploitation participants, making stars out of the less talented, and glorifying vulgarity and materialism (Reality TV, 2019). In addition, reality TV presents rudeness, conflict and criminal behavior to the society, and negative emotions related to this have become the main content of reality TV (Lorenzo-Dus & Garces-Conejos Blitvich, 2013). As a tv-watching culture, audience have become increasingly obsessed with instant gratification. These negative factors mislead the public, affect the participants in some cases, and even lead to social class antagonism (Slade, Narro & Buchanan, 2014).

Jeremy Kyle Show is an example of Reality TV in the UK. Which is hosted by Jeremy Kyle, it premiered on the ITV network on July 4, 2005 and ran for 16 consecutive series until it was cancelled on May 10, 2019. The show is based on opposites, in which participants try to solve important problems in their lives with others. These problems are often related to family relationships, romantic relationships, sex, drugs and alcohol (Hawthorn, 2007). Jeremy Kyle Show puts participants in confrontational situations, often verbally criticizing participants he considers morally questionable or irresponsible and emphasizing the importance of traditional family values. The participants often showed strong emotions, such as anger and distress. The lie detectors are often used on shows to determine whether a person is lying (The Jeremy Kyle Show, 2019). Jeremy Kyle Show‘s popularity has sparked controversy and been labeled tabloid trash. Its cynicism, lack of taste and exploitation of vulnerable participants have drawn criticism from leading newspaper columnists (Lorenzo-Dus & Garces-Conejos Blitvich, 2013). That kind of denigration didn’t help the participants, and it even worked the other way around for Steve Dymond, 63, who worked on an episode of Jeremy Kyle. The episode was filmed a week before his death after he took the show’s lie detector test, which determined he had cheated on his partner, and was later suspected of killing himself (The Jeremy Kyle Show, 2019).

Benefits Street is another example of Reality TV in the UK. It first aired on January 6th in 2014 and aired five episodes. The program follows life in several neighborhoods of James Turner Street in Birmingham, England, where 90% of residents are on welfare. It also shows crimes committed by welfare recipients, including shoplifting. It also depicts people relying on welfare payments without the incentive to seek work (The Jeremy Kyle Show, 2019).

Benefits Street is called poverty porn. It records the daily life of the unemployed urban poor live in the slum and some of the crimes of the poor which makes the audience have obvious on social insecurity in Birmingham James Turner in the Street, as much as 90% of people out of work, rely on the government’s fiscal support this situation brings negative factor of people depend on and lazy at the same time can also cause the public to society all poor misunderstanding, think over the Street represents the social all poor, poor that cause social class antagonism. Those who identified themselves as being on the center-right side of the political spectrum pointed their hatred and anger at the residents of James Turner, who throughout the broadcast were regularly compared to animals on twitter, with many threatening to kill and abuse them (Lamb, 2016).


Hawthorn, S. (2007). Why do we watch all these vile shows. Retrieved October 27, 2019, from:

Lamb, B. (2016). Cathy Come Off Benefits: A comparative ideological analysis of Cathy Come Home and Benefits Street. Journalism and Discourse Studies. Retrieved from:

Lorenzo-Dus, N., & Garcés-Conejos Blitvich, P. (2013). Real talk : reality television and discourse analysis in action. Palgrave Macmillan. Retrieved from

Reality television. (2019). Retrieved October 27, 2019, from:

Slade, A. F., Narro, A. J., & Buchanan, B. P. (2014). Reality television : oddities of culture. Lexington Books. Retrieved from

The Jeremy Kyle Show. (2019). Retrieved October 27, 2019, from:

Week 9

1.What is a workable definition of cosplay?

Cosplay is an activity about the art performance, that participants express their affection to the characters whom they like through dressing up as popular characters. Those popular characters are taken form anime, Japanese anime, video games, movies, popular novels, bands, pop idols, and even from internet memes (Mountfort, Peirson-Smith & Geczy; 2019). Cosplayers always create subcultures through the interaction, and the number of cosplayers has grown rapidly since the 1990s. Cosplay has become an essential aspect of popular culture in Japan, the rest of Asia, and the western world (Cosplay, 2019). Despite the pivotal role of clothing, photography also plays a significant part in Cosplay. Photos and video not only reflect how role playing is carried out, but also play a role in shaping the role (Mountfort, Peirson-Smith & Geczy; 2018).

In order to further understand the concept of Cosplay, there is a history of Cosplay that people need to know. At the beginning of time, Cosplay was called as costuming, which began in the late 1930s in North America at the time. At that time, Cosplay did not need to imitate their favorite role. On the other hand, people only needed to wear an appropriate cloth in their own style. Anyone in the best costume would win a prize. In Japan, manga promoted cosplay, Japanese college students have started dressing up as their favorite characters at parties. This concept took a page from the American playbook, fans tried to recreate their favorite scenes. This increased their excitement and allowed them to express their love for the comic strip. However, the term “Cosplay” was not invented until 1984. The term was coined by Japanese journalist Nobuyuki Takahashi from Costume and play after he attended the world congress in Los Angeles and chose cosplay because he thought Costume balls were too outdated for Japanese audiences (Origin of the word cosplay, 2008).

In addition, we need to understand how Cosplay has become an important aspect of popular culture. First, people find it interesting to dress up as their favorite characters. Cosplay is a great way to spice up people’s lives. Secondly, when people participate in role-playing activities, they are likely to meet thousands of people, which is a new and interesting way to socialize. More importantly, people want to identify with a character. Because the character means so much to them, they like the freedom to dress up as them. It’s an opportunity to express themselves to the world (Evans, 2017). In the modern world, it is limit for people to show their imagination to the world. However, Cosplay gives people the opportunity to do so. Finally, while many cosplayers do it for fun, others do it for a living. These cosplayers have a huge following on social media, which they use for influential marketing and a living. They often sell autographed photos of themselves, and most importantly, they often get paid for consulting work while developing video games. Cosplay as a performing art has its emergence and popularity factor, which still exists to this day. Therefore, Cosplay will remain one of the popular cultures in our society for a long time to come.


Cosplay. (2019). Retrieved October 27, 2019, from:

Evans, R. (2017, January 27). The Muslim cosplayer who uses the hijab in her outfits. Retrieved from:

Mountfort, P., Peirson-Smith, A., & Geczy, A. (2019). Cosplay at Armageddon Expo. Retrieved from:

Mountfort, P., Peirson-Smith, A., & Geczy, A. (2018). Planet Cosplay: Costume Play, Identity and Global Fandom. Intellect Books. Retrieved from:

Origin of the word cosplay. (2008). Retrieved October 27, 2019, from:

Week 8

4. Is anime a high or low cultural genre/media, according to Napier (2005)? How does she frame her discussion and argue her case?

Animation is a high cultural genre. Animation is a charming form of contemporary art expression, with a unique visual beauty. It returns to the Japanese tradition, but also to the forefront of art and media. Anime belongs to popular culture in Japan, but it is a subculture in the western countries. Ten years ago, anime was regarded as an intellectually challenging art form, as indicated by a large number of academic works. Anime popular culture is based on the previous highly traditional culture. Anime showcases the influence of traditional Japanese arts such as kabuki and this print, as well as drawing on the world art traditions of 20th-century cinema and photography. Anime presents problems in surprising ways that are familiar to readers and audience alike. In text, animation provides entertainment for audiences all over the world. It moves and stimulates the audience in the form of old art. Because of the popularity of animation, more widely attract a wide range of people. High-level cultural exchanges, which are not easy to do, do not. Therefore, whether from the perspective of sociology or aesthetics, animation is a cultural phenomenon worth taking seriously (Nappier, 2005).

The wide range of topics of animation reflects a mirror of contemporary society, providing today’s publication of major issues, dreams and nightmares. To be a force of commerce and commercial culture, animation has infected the whole world as a phenomenon. It plays an important role in transnational economy. For more and more non-Japanese enterprises operating animation, animation is an important part of Japan’s export market. At the same time, it also as a small but it grows part of the Japanese business world. Animation scale from small to large, from the small video rental business to send mail to everywhere. For instance, from to Walt Disney Enterprises. Although the influence of animation is small, it is attracting the attention of more and more marketers around the world. Animation as a cultural force is more attractive than its commercial aspects. Because anime brings a deep understanding of Japanese culture. As a kind of implicit cultural resistance, Japanese animation attracts people’s attention and is also a unique artistic product. At the same time, anime is a local form of popular culture that clearly shows its Japanese roots. It also exerts a broad influence outside Japan (Nappier, 2005).

Animation has become a commercial advantage in the western. In the 1960s, the United States extended Japan to the European market by adapting Japanese animation. It had also produced products for children in Europe and Japan and broadcast them in various countries. Italy, Spain and France, in particular, became interested in Japanese products because of their low prices. As a result, Italy has become the country that imports the most animation from Japan. These imports influenced the popularity of anime in South American, Arab and German markets (Pellitteri, 2014; Bendazzi, 2015). Animation is a type of popular culture in all over the world, which has important significance. However, it is also a cultural form whose themes and patterns transcend arbitrary aesthetic boundaries and have important artistic and psychological resonance (Nappier, 2005).


Bendazzi, G. (2015). Animation: A World History: Volume II: The Birth of a Style-The Three Markets. Routledge. Retrieved from: file:///C:/Users/dell/Downloads/9781315720753_googlepreview.pdf

Napier, S. (2005). Why anime? In Anime: from Akira to Howl’s Moving Castle (pp.3-14).

Pellitteri, M. (2014). The Italian anime boom: The outstanding success of Japanese animation in Italy, 1978–1984. Journal of Italian Cinema & Media Studies2(3), 363-381. Retrieved from:

Week 7

4. What issues do his albums raise in terms of representation of ‘race’, and particularly ethnic and cultural stereotyping?

The issue what Herge’s album raise is racism. In Tintin in Congo this album, Herge appeared to be racially biased and stereotyped in the creation. At that time, his creation caused great controversy. Tintin’s attitude to the Congolese nation in Congo has been hugely controversial. As a result, Belgium, the United Nations and the United States had restricted the sale of such depictions to children. Because the content is negative (Tintin in the Congo, 2019). Between 1890 and 1920, Congo was occupied by Belgium, and men, women and children were murdered. In the comics, Herge described such racist discrimination, Belgian colonialism and the “white burden” theme. For example, in the comics, when Africans were arguing, Tintin broke the argument and divided the hats equally, to which Africans replied, “the white people master is very fair.” In the imperialist scene, Tintin introduced Belgium to African students and said it was their country (Mountfort, 2011). When Tintin became a hero, a local woman bowed and told him that the white man was amazing and in good spirits (Herge, 2005).

In the late 20th and early 21st centuries, some activists and writers thought Tintin in Congo was racist because it portrayed the Congolese people as stupid. The government of the democratic republic of Congo criticized the book. In 2004, Congo’s information minister accused Herge of “racism and nostalgia for colonialism” (Cendrowicz, 2010). In 2007, British human rights lawyers complained to the British commission for racial equality (CRE) that they had seen the book in the children’s section of the bookstore. The CRE called on bookstores to remove the comic, saying it contained racial bias. The Congolese, for example, are described as looking like monkeys and fools. In response to the store’s dedication to customer demand, the book was moved to a reserved area for adult graphic novels. Another British retailer, WHSmith, was recommended for readers aged 16 and over. The publisher had also responded to the issue of racism by placing a protective band around the book, warning of its content and an introduction to writing a historical background (Bunyan, 2011).

Tintin in Congo had also been criticised by America; In October 2007, in response to customer complaints, the Brooklyn public library placed graphic novels in a locked back room in New York, allowing access only by appointment. In August 2007, Congolese student Bienvenu Mbutu Mondondo filed a complaint in Brussels, claimed that the book was an insult to the Congolese people and demanded that it be banned. Prosecutors investigated and initiated criminal cases. The matter eventually moved to civil court in April 2010.Mondondo’s lawyers argued that Tintin in Congo was “a justification for colonization and white supremacy”, which Mondondo called “racism and xenophobia”. As for Herge, at the time of creation, Herge’s environment was full of conservative ideas around “patriotism, Catholicism, strict morality, discipline and innocence”. Herge provided information about the Soviet union almost entirely from a single source. In Tintin in Congo, he used limited resources to understand the country and its people (Tintin in the Congo, 2019).


Bunyan, N. (2011). “Tintin banned from children’s shelves over ‘racism’ fears”. The Telegraph. London. Retrieved from:

Cendrowicz, L. (2010). “Tintin: Heroic Boy Reporter or Sinister Racist?”. Time. New York City. Retrieved from:,8599,1986416,00.html

Hergé. (2005). Tintin in the Congo. Leslie Lonsdale-Cooper and Michael Turner (translators). London: Egmont. Retrieved from:

Mountfort, P. (2011). ‘Yellow skin, black hair… Careful, Tintin’: Hergé and Orientalism. Australasian journal of popular culture1(1), 33-49.

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