Blog Feed

week 7

WEEK 7

COMICS: Tintin and the Blue Lotus

Question Four: What issues do his albums raise in terms of representation of ‘race’, and particularly ethnic and cultural stereotyping?

George Herge, the author of Tintin is stated by many to have a conservative mindset that was evident in the first issues of Tintin that focused on advocacy and promotion against anti-communism and the conservative mindset and beliefs. Mountfort (2016) states how certain Tintin episodes were directed towards colonial prejudices and their descendants. Bringing to life the social stereotypes made against the Africa nations by the Western countries. Tintin the Blue Lotus, Tintin in the Congo and Tintin in the land of the soviets all share similarities by containing racist stereotypes in their content. With focus to Tintin and the Blue Lotus, it was an intentional move on Herge’s behalf to inform the readers of the Japanese invasion of Manchuria that occurred in the year 1931.

Reference

Mountfort P. (2012) ‘Yellow skin, black hair … Careful, Tintin’: Hergé and Orientalism. Australasian Journal of Popular Culture, 1(1), 33-49. doi: 10.1386/ajpc.1.1.33_1

Brief 2

ASSESMENT 2: FANFICTION

Commentary:

I have written this fanfiction with the inclusion of aspects from Volger (1998) basic character types. The fan fiction I have chosen to base the story on was from the episode “Popeye; A day at muscle beach”. However, I have changed the character of Popeye slightly, by adding extra characters to cover most of Volger’s 7 archetypes. That includes a hero (Popeye) someone who is willing to sacrifice for the sake of the greater good. A mentor (his father/ Mother) who is a positive figure that aids and mentors. A herald (Maria sick mother) often brings a challenge to the hero. A shapeshifter (Maria) who is usually someone of the opposite sex. The shadow (Hihifo bloodline) who is seen as the threat to the hero’s village. And lastly, The Trickster (Tino) who can be a subset to the Shapeshifter, however in this case not from the opposite sides of living but rather opposite views towards the hero, found wanting to challenge the right of Popeye to the Chieftainship of the Hahake bloodline. The story is set in the Islands with the beach from the actual Popeye episode as the foundation of the settings. Set in the South Pacific, made up of sandy beaches in the 20th century. Both Maria and Popeye are in their early teens who are curiously exploring love, regardless of their village relationship.

Reference:

Vogler, C. 1998. The writer’s journey: Mythic structure for writers. Studio City, CA: Michael

Wiese Productions.

 

POPEYE AND THE CURE.

Popeye is the sole descendent of the Hahake tribe, his father chief Carlos was the only survivor from the deadly war with the rivalry tribe of Hihifo. A war that forbid the love between Popeye and his star struck sweetheart Maria, King Haku chief of Hihifo’s only daughter. The feud between the two Chief lines dated back to the early 18th century when the discovery of ‘Oholei Island was claimed by both tribes, each governing the North and South territories they had inhabited. Leader of the Hahake tribe, Popeye had an unusual name, described by the elders of the village as the first word the well-known sailor Christopher Taylor had pronounced during the first trade sessions of goods to ever take place. Similar was the name Maria, introduced through missionaries who travelled an evangelical pilgrimage to the Pacific to spread Christianity and landed on the North side of Oholei Island. Confused about the history that lay between them, both Popeye and Maria despite the warnings of their elders, would meet up right before sunset of every day. The location of encounter known only to the pair was by the three headed coconut tree that divided each territory.

Arriving from sea Popeye hurryingly chucks the net under the coconut tree to dry then hands over his fish filled basket to his mother Niua as he rushes off to collects firewood before the sunsets.

“There you go mother” he whispers, as he quickly grabs the machete and sack heading into the bush.

“That boy of yours, surly takes after his father” Ma’ata adds as she approaches Niua.

Ma’ata also has a son named Tino who is just months younger than Popeye and would be his successor one day as Leader of the Hahake tribe, if there is no heir to Popeyes line. The Village rumour has it that Popeye and Tino are actually half-brothers as both Niua and Ma’ata bore children to Chief Carlos.

“Well I only hope he serves his people well as his father did” answers Niua.

Meanwhile, out in the bush Popeye hides his tracks as he makes his way to the three headed coconut tree to visit Maria who is impatiently waiting for his arrival.

“What took you so long? My grandma can move faster then that” growled Maria.

“Im sorry, we just got back from sea and I picked up some firewood on the way here as an excuse to leave the rest” answered Popeye

“You know Tino, always wanting to follow me, I carefully covered my tracks in case he caught on to me”.

Maria rolled her eyes as she reached over to give Popeye a hug, the two paused in the same position for a while before laughing as they leant on the coconut tree for a rest.

“You know, my mother is not getting any healthier and my family are growing desperate to find a cure” explained Maria.

“Well if there is anything I can do to help, then please do not hesitate to ask” Popeye reassures her.

“I was named Popeye for a reason, my aunty said it’s how captain Taylor described the appearance of my father, apparently his left eye was bigger than his right and that was what distinguished him from the rest of the men in the village”.

“He had a great eye for detail”.

“Enough about your family I came here to tell you about mine” she interrupts.

“Its been three nights since I last saw you, the storm left plenty of drinking water but also two families without houses” reported Maria “My mother is ill and cannot make rulings and so now the pressure is on me”.

“Hmmmmmmm, well why don’t you take the sack of wood I have collected”

“What for” ask’s Maria

“To help with repairs, do you have a better idea?”

Maria apologies and grabs the sack of wood. Her hands are shaking as she stands in silence, face down with her hair tucked behind her ears.

“Hey, everything is going to be just fine, I promise you” says Popeye as he rubs her back to comfort her.

They turn to realise the sun has set and the glow of the stars are becoming their main source of light.

“Well we better get going, we don’t want anyone to realise were missing” Says Maria.

Popeye leans in for a kiss and they each return to Hihifo and Hahake.

“Who was that Pop”? asked a little voice from the bushes

Panicking frantically Popeye stops and from out of the bushes comes Tino.

“You lied to Niua all this time!”

“Shutup you, mind your own business!” shouted Popeye

“I will prove to the village I am the rightful ruler and you are nothing but a traitor who is sneaking around with the enemy” said Tino

“STOP” shouted Popeye, “what did I ever do to you”

“I do not want to be chief; I just want to be happy” sobbed Popeye as he fell to his knees in tears.

Walking back silently, they parted ways as they entered the village. Afraid his secret would be discovered; Popeye waited for his mum before he quietly awoke to pack a small piece of his belongings.

“I have failed my people; I have failed my father maybe Tino was right” he thought to himself.

Before leaving the village outskirts he remembered Maria’s plea for a cure to her mother’s sickness. Popeye made his way back to the village meeting house and tiptoed into the elders room to retrieve the last few drops of herbal medicine used on Ma’ata when she fell ill.

“This should do the trick” he thought to himself, as he quietly wrapped the ointment and carefully placed it in his basket.

“Cooookadududuuuuuuu” the roosters never failed to become the Hahake villages alarm clock, rain or shine.

It was a new morning for Niua to wakeup and not find Popeye next to her. Unusual to her understanding Niua knocks on Ma’ata’s door.

“Good morning, sorry to wake you up but is Popeye here by any chance?” ask’s Niua

“No sorry” replied Ma’ata, “Ill just quickly ask Tino”.

“I am sorry Niua Tino last saw him last night and he looked a bit upset” explained Ma’ata.

“Pssst Maria, over here near the Papaya tree” whispers Popeye

“What are you doing here, do you realise you can get killed if the elders find you”

Popeye smiles as he hands over the ointment “this should hopefully cure your mother; it did the same to my aunty Ma’ata”.

 

WEEK 4

WEEK 4

Torture Porn:

  1. According to Carroll (????), what is the role of torture in the torture porn franchises Saw and Hostel? Using references, explain this in your own words. How do you think these purposes might relate to the socio-political environment of that time period and such events like 9/11 and the Abu Ghraib torture scandal?

The role of torture porn films according to Carroll (2003) is aimed to emphasize gore, torture, and violence in the form of mutilation. The torture porn franchise Saw and Hostel normalized torture where they attempt in describing torture porn as a sub-genre horror that contains imprisonment, mental and physical torture as well as abduction (Reyes, 2014). The main characters in the films are experiencing a great amount of suffrage and torture. The cause of torture and the effects of it is intentional in generating an impact on the audience as well as sending the underlying message. Reyes (2014) states the role of torture in Saw and Hostel is to directly attract viewers by pain and disgust to generate empathy.

The socio-political environment of the early 2000s would have also contributed towards the torture porn genre. This was an era where historically negative socio-political issues such as 9/11 and the Abu Gharib torture scandals made headlines all over the world. One can say the 9/11 incident was an act of terror to install “fear” for whatever cause they believed America was responsible for and in return the Abu-Gharib torture scandal was the actions of “revenge” in retaliation to the fear on the Pentagon and the World trade center massacres. Either way, the actions of both incidents are observed by Hilal 2017 as a violation of a series of universal human rights. Saw and Hostel depict torture as a method of inflicting fear and exacting retribution or fear.

  1. Rose (2017) defines this modern boom of prestige horror as “Post-Horror.” What does he mean by this term? Find and read some critiques on his definition online and respond to both. Do you think Post-Horror is a valid term or not? Using examples and references explain your position.

Rose (2017) suggests post horror as a new sub-genre of horror that breaks norms of convention and clichés of horror and reveals the beliefs and feelings of the movie directors. Here the director is free to redefine the extent to horror which appears in the movie instead of following the conventional super-natural and exorcism storylines where filmmakers create their own versions of horror using themes. Rose’s interpretation of post horror films is connected to J. A. Bridges who contends that some horror films that include auteurism.

I personally, do not watch a lot of post horror films, however, Brown (2019) suggests that post horror is a largely pointless term that derives from a lack of historical perspective on the genre. Viewers fail to become socially aware of post horror films that have existed since the early days and the past films contain more experimental content that has expanded the language of cinema. On the other hand, Rose only gives a token of the transgressive nature as a genre. Brown (2019) also states that the history of horror as a peak of the cultural boundaries society has been hiding behind the scenes that society does not want to address.

Reference:

Brown, M (2019) The problem with post horror. Retrieved from https://overland.org.au/2019/05/the-problem-with-post-horror/

Carrol, N. (2003). The nature of horror: In The Philosophy of Horror or Paradoxes of the Heart. Retrieved from https://blacboard.aut.ac.nz

Reyes, X. A. (2014). Body Gothic: Corporeal Transgression in Contemporary Literature and Horror Film. Wales: University of Wales Press.

Rose, G. (2017). How post-horror movies are taking over cinemas. The Guardian. Retrieved August 10, 2019 from https://www.theguardian.com/film/2017/jul/06/post-horror-films-scary-movies-ghost-story-it-comes-at-night

WEEK 4

WEEK 4

Torture Porn:

  1. According to Carroll (????), what is the role of torture in the torture porn franchises Saw and Hostel? Using references, explain this in your own words. How do you think these purposes might relate to the socio-political environment of that time period and such events like 9/11 and the Abu Ghraib torture scandal?

The role of torture porn films according to Carroll (2003) is aimed to emphasize gore, torture, and violence in the form of mutilation. The torture porn franchise Saw and Hostel normalized torture where they attempt in describing torture porn as a sub-genre horror that contains imprisonment, mental and physical torture as well as abduction (Reyes, 2014). The main characters in the films are experiencing a great amount of suffrage and torture. The cause of torture and the effects of it is intentional in generating an impact on the audience as well as sending am the underlying message. Reyes (2014) states the role of torture in Saw and Hostel is to directly attract viewers by pain and disgust to generate empathy.

The socio-political environment of the early 2000s would have also contributed towards the torture porn genre. This was an era where historically negative socio-political issues such as 9/11 and the Abu Gharib torture scandals made headlines all over the world. One can say the 9/11 incident was an act of terror to install “fear” for whatever cause they believed America was responsible for and in return the Abu-Gharib torture scandal was the actions of “revenge” in retaliation to the fear on the Pentagon and the World trade center massacres. Either way, the actions of both incidents are observed by Hilal 2017 as a violation of a series of universal human rights. Saw and Hostel depict torture as a method of inflicting fear and exacting retribution or fear.

  1. Rose (2017) defines this modern boom of prestige horror as “Post-Horror.” What does he mean by this term? Find and read some critiques on his definition online and respond to both. Do you think Post-Horror is a valid term or not? Using examples and references explain your position.

Rose (2017) suggests post horror as a new sub-genre of horror that breaks norms of convention and clichés of horror and reveals the beliefs and feelings of the movie directors. Here the director is free to redefine the extent to horror which appears in the movie instead of following the conventional super-natural and exorcism storylines where filmmakers create their own versions of horror using themes. Rose’s interpretation of post horror films is connected to J. A. Bridges who contends that some horror films that include auteurism.

I personally, do not watch a lot of post horror films, however, Brown (2019) suggests that post horror is a largely pointless term that derives from a lack of historical perspective on the genre. Viewers fail to become socially aware of post horror films that have existed since the early days and the past films contain more experimental content that has expanded the language of cinema. On the other hand, Rose only gives a token of the transgressive nature as a genre. Brown (2019) also states that the history of horror as a peak of the cultural boundaries society has been hiding behind the scenes that society does not want to address.

Reference:

Brown, M (2019) The problem with post horror. Retrieved from https://overland.org.au/2019/05/the-problem-with-post-horror/

Carrol, N. (2003). The nature of horror: In The Philosophy of Horror or Paradoxes of the Heart. Retrieved from https://blacboard.aut.ac.nz

Reyes, X. A. (2014). Body Gothic: Corporeal Transgression in Contemporary Literature and Horror Film. Wales: University of Wales Press.

Rose, G. (2017). How post-horror movies are taking over cinemas. The Guardian. Retrieved August 10, 2019, from https://www.theguardian.com/film/2017/jul/06/post-horror-films-scary-movies-ghost-story-it-comes-at-night

Week 8 – Anime

According to Callavaro (2006), what does Miyazaki think about happy endings, and how do manga and anime more generally diverge from Western narrative conventions?

In the introductory chapter of Callavaro (2006), readers are given a primer into Studio Ghibli’s Hayao Miyazaki. During this section, Miyazaki’s philosophy towards endings are briefly touched upon. With Callavaro (2006) stating that when ending his films, Miyazaki purposely avoids the kind of endings which effectively resolves every loose end. Which Miyazaki himself explains is because he had refrained from trying to make films with happy endings in the most traditional sense a long time ago. Instead opting to mimic the unpredictable nature of life.

This aspect of his work arguably carried over into that of his intended successor, Yoshifumi Kondo. Which we can see in the only feature length film directed by him prior to his sudden death. Whisper of the Heart, like much of Miyazaki’s work ends on an ambiguous note. Allowing for viewers to contemplate what becomes of the characters in the future. Effectively allowing them to linger in our minds and hearts for much longer than if we had a conventional ending that gave resolution to every plot point, or a “happy” ending as described by this week’s question.

One way in which anime and manga diverge from western narrative conventions is with regards to how integral the two mediums are to one another. With anime adaptations of manga often playing into how familiar audiences are with the source material. Which some have felt are the reasons for the initially lacklustre reception to films such as Katsuhiro Otomo’s Akira. (Callavaro, 2006). Something we can arguably see today in western media with the numerous live action adaptations of western comic book properties.

According to Callavaro, how is he positioned in regard to war and coming of age?

In Callavaro (2006), Miyazaki is referred to as being a strong advocate of pacifism and egalitarian ideologies. This is in part due to what could be described as the transgenerational guilt he felt over his family’s complicity in Japan’s involvement in World War II. As his family’s businesses were directly involved in the production of rudders used on the warplanes of which the infamous kamikaze aerial tactic is derived from. Additionally, his shame stems from privileges this position brought his family. Allowing them to reside in the rural town of Utsonomiya, just shy of Tokyo. Which meant they were spared from seeing the eventual wartime horrors the firebombing of Tokyo would bring. This guilt would be the basis of films such as Porco Rosso and the more recent The Wind Rises.

With regards to coming of age stories, Miyazaki’s films almost exclusively employ young, female heroines that subvert expectations within Japan’s shoujo subgenre of fiction. Which typically portray their heroines as being inherently passive. Miyazaki on the other hand does the opposite. Choosing to portray his female leads as courageous and independent women who are “active”. Additonally, Miyazaki avoids depicting these characters in ways that cater to consumers of anime and manga that desire sexualised imagery in the visual design of female characters (Callavaro, 2006, p. 11).

 

References

Cavallaro, D. (2006). Introduction. In The animé art of Hayao Miyazaki (pp. 5-14). Jefferson, NC: McFarland.

 

Week 7 – Comics

What issues do his albums raise in terms of representation of ‘race’, and particularly ethnic and cultural stereotyping?

How decisively did Hergé address this issue from The Blue Lotus on, and in what ways did it remain problematic?

Herge’s depiction of various cultures throughout his run of the Tintin comics varied from caricatures rooted in stereotypes of the time, to depictions that showed a more informed and nuanced attempt at the representation of others. Herge’s depiction of African people in particular often comes under scrutiny. With many citing earlier works such as Tintin in the Congo as the worst in this regard. With Mountfort (2012) noting that Herge himself considered it to be one of the biggest regrets of his youth, along with the propagandistic Tintin in the land of the Soviets.

According to Mountfort (2012), part of the criticism stems from portraying the indigenous people of Africa using exaggerated physical features that included the caricature of “juju lips”. Additionally, it is also due to portraying them with characteristics that propagated ideas of racial inferiority such as Africans being inherently bloodthirsty, lazy or childlike. These depictions are also criticised due to the lack of self-awareness it shows in portraying the realities of the Congo under Belgium’s colonial rule. A regime that had reduced the Congolese population from 20 million to 10 million within a 30-year period.

Part of this can be attributed with the fact that unlike the titular protagonist of the series, Herge himself rarely travelled. Basing most of the depictions on research he had conducted at Belgium’s Royal Museum for Central Africa (Mountfort, 2012).

It is with Tintin and the Blue Lotus that we see Herge attempt to make amends for this. The album set in China prior to Japan’s involvement in WWII, avoids depicting the Chinese in the manner Herge had done with the Congolese. Instead of using exaggerated caricatures, the Chinese are depicted with neutral physical features. Supposedly in an attempt at making them appear less alien and confronting to readers (Mountfort, 2012).

However, Herge doesn’t apply the same philosophy to the Japanese. Instead choosing to do the opposite and draw them using extremely exaggerated facial features. Not too far off from the anti-Japanese propaganda used by America during WWII. Resulting in what Lasar-Robinson referred to as the deasianisation of the Chinese, and the hyperasianisation of the Japanese. It should be noted that Herge’s attempts here came from a place of heart, with his friendship with a Chinese arts student influencing the basis of albums including the aforementioned Tintin and the Blue Lotus, as well as the recurring character of Chang (Mountfort, 2012).

There have been times when the representation of race has been outside of the control of Herge’s hands though. With later printings of Tintin in America effectively white washing certain Black characters. Due to publisher concerns that felt the original iterations would promote the idea of race mixing in a what was considered a children’s book (Mountfort, 2012).

We can assume that Herge’s earlier attempts at portraying other cultures were in large part due to not only his own ignorance, but also Belgium’s as a whole. With later albums such as Tintin in Tibet and The Blue Lotus showing that he is capable of more nuanced approaches in portraying other cultures. At the same time though, these heartfelt and informed attempts were sometimes criticised too. Showing there was always room for improvement in this area.

 

References

Mountfort, P. (2012). ‘Yellow skin, black hair … careful, Tintin’: Hergé and orientalism. Australasian Journal of Popular Culture1(1), 33-49. doi:10.1386/ajpc.1.1.33_1

 

Assessment II: Fan Fiction Essay

Commentary 

I have written this fanfiction story creating correlation with multiple aspects of Pop Genres course. Firstly, this piece of work connects with Cult TV by its mere heading. Plus, the scene where this text has come to an end, hints that a next episode would be made.  Secondly, I have used aspects of Chris Vogler’s hero’s journey. For example, from Act 1, Ordinary World, where Zara is shown that she is part of the living world which we are. Similarly, her daily routines resemble with an ordinary person’s concerns. Furthermore, Zara shows her heroic skills and by passing the threshold and amplifies herself to the greater world as to what else she is capable of. Ultimately, she has reached the innermost cave of her journey which is, to practice her profession in New Zealand. That is when she is invited by Chris, who offers her the dream job she has been desperate for. She also seizes the reward offered to her and now proceeded with the concept of The Road Back but to her surprise, something which she never expected comes out of the blues. This scene is considered to be the Climax of this story. Additionally, I have also illustrated the reality behind the treatment of women in India which, corresponds with our last two weeks of lectures around Reality TV. Nevertheless, the purpose of finishing the story at this very moment was to leave the emotion of “helplessness”, which was introduced by H.P. Lovecraft in his Cthulhu Mythos. This emotion is supposed to work as a symbol, that is to remind the reader that, even though this essay is the last piece of work I am presenting but it has its roots all the way from the beginning of this course.  

Shortland Street 

Zara Mandal came from India to New Zealand in the pursuit of a better quality of free life. By profession, she is a qualified doctor (Cardiologist) but currently drives a taxi in New Zealand. Her reason for driving a taxi was solely to acquire the adequate amount of funds which is required from her to accredit her cardiologist certification into New Zealand’s standards and to upgrade her academic qualification. Zara’s daily routine is, to get up early in the morning and shoot off from her one-bedroom apartment. Sit behind the steering wheels of her friends Toyota Prius and begin to search for customers until sunset. 

Her customers used to ask her questions such as, “how have you been?”,  

“how long have you been driving a taxi for?”, etc. while replying Back to her customers question, she also used to give them the purpose of driving a taxi and the hardships she was facing. Sometimes, there would be customers who would give Zara so much confidence and motivation in her pursuit of achievement and her ultimate goal which would kindle the fire of hope in her heart. Three months had already past from the time Zara’s arrived in New Zealand when the burning flame in Zara’s heart began to heighten.  

One day she picked a passenger from Shortland Street Hospital who told Zara to drop him off at Mission heights. Zara, oblivious of the fact that her customer was none other than the CEO of Shortland Street hospital, Chris. She turned her taxi meter on and began to drive towards Mission heights. A little conversation took place between them but nothing particular. While Zara was on her way to drop her passenger to his required destination, they happened to witness a car collide into another car which resulted in being rolled down from the over bridge into the road at the bottom. It was one of a kind accident which Zara witnessed. 

So, Zara being a doctor, always available to save others life, she stopped her vehicle and asked permission from her passenger and off she went towards the accident ground. when she reached the accident point, Zara noticed that in one of the cars there was a pregnant woman whose name read Kate on her badge. She had already died due to the severity of the accident and blood could be witnessed pouring out from the bottom part of her body. Zara shouted on top of her lungs, “Someone call 111, please” rushing towards the car which got smashed, Zara ran. There was a man who seemed to be severely injured and was breathing heavily. When Zara saw the man’s condition, she ran swiftly towards him and began to apply her medical skills on that man. Zara responded to him with such confidence in her actions and profoundly doing exactly the right steps which took Chris into amazement. He was truly fascinated and taken aback by the skills a taxi driver was conducting. A big scene was created in the time being, news media had arrived at the location and live broadcast began to take place and. After 10 minutes, they heard the siren of an ambulance, fire brigade and police heading towards the location. They hastily responded to the victims and transported them directly to the hospital. Hence, without many conversations being able to take, Zara dropped her passenger at his requested address, which was only 1 minute away and went back to work. Before Chris walked out of the car, he asked the driver, “what is your name?”, Zara replied, “Zara!”  

The following day, Zara came into Shortland Street Hospital, to find out about the condition of the patient she helped yesterday. While she was walking in the corridor, she happened to bump into the same person who was in her taxi yesterday, but only this time he was in a doctor’s outfit. “Hi, I’m Chris,” said Chris, while handing over his hand towards Zara. As Zara reached out towards his hand, she began to get a flashback of his husband back in India. She hastily retracted her hand back. This took Chris as a surprise, but he was calm. Chris asked Zara as to why was she here?  

Zara replied, “I came to see visit the man who was caught in an accident” Chris replied, “Let’s go, come with me”. They both began to walk towards the patient’s room. On the way to the room, Chris began to question Zara about who she is and how was she so bravely able to respond to yesterday’s incident. Zara was telling Chris regarding her profession and her experiences along the way. Once they reached the room, Chris asked Zara if she can meet him after she has visited that man in level 5 room number 17. Zara replied, “why do you want me there?” Chris replied, “I have great news for you” she then replied in affirmative, saying she will come.  

Back in India, Zara had a very tough life. She had a very bad experience with her previous husband. She was always tortured, abused and treated like a prostitute whenever they had intimacy. From that time, she had a very negative image resonating with males. Zara’s mother told Zara, that she would definitely find someone very caring and loving but Zara always took this prayer of her mother as a fantasy.   

Knock! Knock, Zara taps on the 17th room of the 5th floor in the hospital. Outcomes Chris opening the door from inside. Welcome! Welcome! Said Chris. “Take a seat, Zara” “How is your patient?” “my patient?”, asks Zara surprisingly. “Yes! Your patient” replied Chris. Zara’s eyes were filled with tears when she heard this statement. “You have been given the role of a Cardiologist at Shortland Street” proclaimed Chris. “No! no! this is unbelievable” replied Zara. How…? Chris told Zara, “from tomorrow you begin your work at this very hospital and if you require any assistance, which I doubt you would, I will be at your service. “But why are you doing all this for me?”, questioned Zara. Chris replied, “I don’t know, but there is something in you which speaks that you are capable of this job”. Dumbfounded, Zara says, “I have to undertake the certification accreditation done before I begin this job” Chris replied, “don’t worry, that is not a difficult task which needs to be accomplished”  

Happily, shooting off from the hospital, Zara rushes towards the main entrance of the hospital. To her surprise, she saw her husband standing at the door. What! “Aap yaha kiya kar rahe ho?” [1] Zara surprisingly asked Jav Mandal. “Main tumhe wapas lee gaa ne ke liye ayaa hun[2]” replied Zara’s husband. “Nahi[3]! This cannot happen” shouted Zara. Jav Mandal held the right hand of Zara and headed towards the exit of Shortland Street Hospital.   

Appendix 

[1] Aap yaha kiya kar rahe ho?: What are you doing here? 

[2] Main tumhe wapas lee gaa ne ke liye ayaa hun: I have come here to take you back home 

[3] Nahi!: No! 

Buffy Fanfiction

OBITUARY

 

WILLIAMS, SIMON. Born 1982. Passed away on July 14, 2004. Loyal son of James, brother to Gareth, captain of the Sunnydale High football team and friend to all. An inspiration. Taken too early. No service be held.

 

 

POLICE INVESTIGATING HIGH SCHOOL STUDENT FOUND DEAD IN CAR ON THE OUTSKIRTS OF SUNNYDALE

JULY 14 2004

BY DONE REDFORD

 

A high school student was found dead outside of Sunnydale early in the morning.

 

It is known that a loud noise preceded the event and flashing lights of uncertain origin were seen before it occurred.

 

The place where the body was found has been cordoned off indefinitely. A police spokesman has said that officers were alerted as soon as the body was discovered.

 

A short statement was released to the press. “We are working to establish the facts of the case. We don’t need speculation.”

 

 

SUNNYDALE CONFESSIONS PAGE

 

R.I.P. SIMON WILLIAMS!!! – 1Lover

 

I always loved you Simon. You will forever be in my heart. That night we spent together will live forever in my heart. I still have the necklace you gave me, and I’ll keep your secret. – 1Lover

Fuck off. If you really dated him or had his secrets you wouldn’t be on here trying to get us to ask you what they were. I’ve seen you posting this shit so many times before. Stop being an attention whore. – RealNinja7777

ouch – Toocan.

 

good riddance. The bathrooms will be safer without him. – din viesel

What’s that supposed to mean? – RogerMoorefan91

If you don’t know you don’t know. – din viesel

 

does anyone else thingk the librarian’s pretty hot? –

lol no – meangirl

fuck no – twentytwentytwenty

I mena, kinda… –

 

Whose the guy who’s been hanging out with lately? Geeky looking guy. I heard the police want him to talk to him so if you know where he is call them up.

I think his name’s Harris or something? – Toocan

I think you’re mistaken. It’s definitely something else. – Alexxx

What makes you so sure? – Too can

I just know. – Alexxx

??? Well forgive me if I don’t take the word of a stranger on the internet as gospel. – Toocan

 

 

 

Does anyone know how he died?

I’m the one who found his body. He was torn up pretty badly. I didn’t know a human could do that sort of thing. – anon

Oh shiiiit. Maybe it wasn’t human? – 69Guy

 

Tbh I wish those protestors would just SHUT THE FUCK UP and leave the school alone. I’ve got a GPA to maintain.

There’s things that are more important than your grades. There’s a world. – RealNinja777

 

FYI to the cheerleaders in the library yesterday – just cause you decided to date guys who aren’t jocks doesn’t make you smart. If you’re gonna come to the library than keep ur mouths shut. Some of us are trying to study. Ur just idiots.

Preach. – anon

 

Heyooo that girl with the blue sandals at the fountain the other day? Fred Lawson likes you. You should get him to ask you out on a date.

Wish we had more of these. Things have gotten so negative around here lately. – Mollly

Complaining about problems is just creating new problems. You should let go of your tension. – Um, okay?

Uh, okay? – Mollly

Anyone know what happened to that blonde girl in Ms. Moran’s history class? She’s stopped coming to class lately.

Is everyone just gonna talk about Simon Williams now? I’m just worried about midterms. Least we got a few days off school now.

This has gone on long enough .

 

 

EXCERPTS FROM THE DIARY OF WILLOW ROSENBERG

7/12/2004

 

Dear diary,

No, that sounds stupid. I haven’t written inside this diary since I was eight so I guess I don’t need to bother with the formalities now. Only picked this up because I was feeling nostalgic. then the only thing I wrote about was Xander…

 

He’s been acting strange lately. And not like a boy going through puberty way but in a way that’s just off. Ever since Oz and me started dating he’s been distant. He started hanging out with a new crowd recently. He’s never reallyhad guy friends to talk to about stuff with so it’s good for him, but sometimes I feel a little left out. Oz doesn’t really get along with them but I’m glad he’s finally found his people, you know what I mean?…

 

Anyway, I’ll always be his best friend. I probably don’t even need to write that, but it’s true.

 

 

CHAT LOGS – 7/13/04

 

Are you sure this is safe?

 

Positive. I’m going out tonight.

 

Oh shit, oh shit, oh shit. I don’t know man. Maybe we should just ask my friend Buffy to help out. This is a Slayer job.

 

You know what she’d say. We’ve relied on the Slayer too long to solve our problems. The people of Sunnydale have just been ignoring their duties as citizens. It’s out turn to take responsibility. We’ve talked about this.

 

I know. I understand.

 

Do you still have the thing I gave you?

 

Yeah. Why?

 

I need it.

 

[5 MINUTES]

 

Xander? You still there.

 

I don’t think you need it.

 

Yeah, I do.

 

 

Xander. Please.

 

 

 

 

Okay, I’ll give it to you.

 

 

MASKED PROTESTORS OUTSIDE SUNNYDALE HIGH AS GUN IS FOUND

JULY 17 2004

By Done Redford

 

A group of around thirty protesters wearing ‘demon’ masks were spotted outside Sunnydale Town Council at approximately 12-4pm yesterday. The messages on the protest signs were directed towards the perceived negligence of the Town Council to curb the recent rash of unexplained deaths and to open up the possibility they were murders, including football captain and beloved symbol of the town Simon Williams.

 

Protestors also claimed that Sunnydale was being run by demonic forces and that people had simply turned a blind eye. However, none of them would give their name or the name of their organization despite extensive talks with reporters.

 

“We don’t know who could out there to get us. Sunnydale is stranger than you think.” One protestor said. “I’ve seen things. Women who’ll suck the blood right out your blood if you pay them. Creatures that will make your skin crawl just by looking at them. One time while walking home I saw a little blonde girl fighting a homeless man who came up to her begging for food – she stabbed and disintegrated him to dust right in front of me.”

 

One of the young men who seemed to be the de facto leader of the group, leading the chants said, “The time has come to take back the night. We will show them who the real monsters in Sunnydale are. If the Council doesn’t join us then we’ll have to take matters into our own hands.”

 

Further questions were met with dismissive comments.

 

Acting Mayor Huell Carson declined to comment. After the sudden, unexplained departure of the previous Mayor Richard Wilkins he has taken up office temporarily until the next election.

 

Reports of vandalism by the protest group have also surfaced. Eyewitness accounts claim they were found drawing strange runes with chalk on the building’s surface, but when none could be found when police officers searched. When questioned the activists neglected to comment.

 

“There’s always been something wrong with this city,” one mother of two said, while overlooking . “I’m just surprised it hadn’t happened sooner.”

 

 

 

 

EXEGESIS

 

Due to the limited scope of this assignment and most examples of Gomez’s Collective Journey that I could find being in the form of longform content such as television shows, I decided that rather than a short story it may be more effective to take a decentralized approach to the narrative. This fanfiction’s structure was inspired by Lizzie Borden’s film Born In Flames (1983), a documentary style feminist film which utilized fictionalized excerpts from various media outlets (both mainstream and alternative, audio, visual and written) to highlight the multiple perspectives at play and the intersectionality of the issues the film tackled.

 

At heart Buffy The Vampire Slayer is a superhero narrative drawing heavily from Campbell’s Hero’s Journey (1993), where one character is elevated as the protector of the community as an exceptional individual. I wanted to problematize the idea of the superhero or elevated individuals in general, and the idea of vigilantes – people who step outside of the system to correct it. Simon Williams is a character I created to reflect that, as his status is elevated to legend and the person he really was is obscured by the conflicting reports of his personality, as well as the characters’ relationships to him. In another way I wanted Buffy’s role as the Slayer to be called into question, as the person who holds both the power and authority over Sunnydale for all supernatural matters is absent and hides her identity from the people who need her most.

 

Gomez’s Collective Journey (2016) prefers a diverse cast rather than a singular hero, highlighting systemic problems and the various solutions that the community as a whole can offer rather than a singular antagonist to defeat. As a non-linear model for storytelling it is easier to isolate and use elements within the short stories. For my fanfiction I chose to focus on the concept of super positioning and the various ways people project their identity both onto the internet and to the real world, and how that can affect social change on a wider scale. In different contexts online we may behave different and  (Gomez). For those familiar with the show they will be able to place this show around early season four.

 

In an age of superpositioned identities a critical eye becomes important to sorting through the apocryphal nature of internet discourse. I utilized the linguistic tool of passivation Goatly & Hiradhar’s (2016) in the first article written to omit information about who discovered the body, trying to immediately raise questions about who or what could have created. This is an attempt to place the reader into the shoes of the average citizen of Sunnydale, who only has hushed rumours to go on and several contradicting sources from which to choose.

 

BtVS takes place during the early 2000s when the internet was still in its infancy and before social media had fully taken hold, but this nascent form of the internet could still provide a world a space in which people could be anonymous or create wholesale personas with which to express their opinions, especially in a small town such as Sunnydale. This is further compounded by the presence of old media such as newspapers which have their own spin on events. Its portrayal of the internet and technology in general has varied from passably entertaining to wildly inaccurate (Season One’s “I, Robot… You Jane” being the worst offender) but there is much untapped potential here.

 

I did not accomplish as much as I would have hoped to and the execution needs a lot of work, but I believe I have at least communicated the main ideas with this fanfiction. My intent was to leave things up to interpretation so that the reader could puzzle out. Xander Harris’ presence is hidden among the various texts of this page, under the guise of anonymity. I intentionally chose him because he is the most “normal” out of the main characters, without superpowers or special skills, but also represents what much of the alt-right looks for in terms of recruitment as a pop culture obsessed straight white male. I also intended to add a blog post from Simon Williams in which he would act as a sort of gateway into the group of masked protestors who would eventually be shown to commit acts of violence or torture towards demons. Despite the Slayer’s job to face evil she is completely absent from the conversation of how the community should handle ,  and as a result the citizens who do realize that something is going on are left in the dark and feel the need to take the law into their own hands. It is an intensely flawed approach but it is still an attempt to correct injustice.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

References

 

Borden, L. (Director). (1983). Born in flames [Motion picture]. United States: Lizzie Borden

 

Campbell, J. (1993). The hero with a thousand faces. Fontana. Retrieved from http://search.ebscohost.com.ezproxy.aut.ac.nz/login.aspx?direct=true&db=cat05020a&AN=aut.b11216438&site=eds-live

Gomez, J. (n.d.) Collective journey. Retrieved from https://blog.collectivejourney.com/

 

Goatly, A., & Hiradhar, P. (2016). Critical reading and writing in the digital age : An introductory       coursebook. Retrieved from https://ebookcentral.proquest.com

 

 

Dominic McAlpine

The Promise

https://i.quotev.com/img/q/u/18/7/2/5uv3saoja6.jpg

Fanfiction and Commentary by Ashleigh Carter. Based on the cult Anime series Blood-C created by CLAMP.

Prologue

“I am sorry my love. But I can no longer keep my promise to you. Humans have become creatures of a despicable nature; I no longer feel pity or compassion towards them. I must find a way to break my contract…forgive me, Azami…

The Old Ones. Ancient monsters of unknown origin whose main form of sustenance is human flesh. So great is their strength, humanity stood no chance against them. Out of desperation, the humans sought to try to commune with the elders in order to come up with some sort of compromise which would cause the least amount of life lost. This led to the creation of the covenant – the Shrovetide. This agreement meant that the old ones could continue to feed on humans however they would be restricted to a specified time and place.

The old ones fear me; the one that feeds on their kind. The product of a union between an old one and a human. The humans have come to call me, a vampire…

Location: Kyoto City, Japan Year: 1860 Edo Period

Chapter 1 – Fated Meeting

Loneliness. It’s all I’ve ever known. That, and hunger; a hunger that I can’t control. I’m certain my eyes are glowing crimson red; pupils in slits, revealing to anyone that might see, that I am anything but human, despite my appearance.

Earlier in the day, I had caught the most delectable scent that I had ever smelled in my long life. That’s how I found myself stalking my prey through a dark, deserted street this night. How can a human smell so good? Instinct is taking over, I must control myself; I am not an animal, not like the rest of my kind who devour their prey on sight, without even being hungry. Animals. So hungry…

Zeroing in on my meal of the night, I lunge at the human preparing to sink my teeth into their neck severing their carotid artery; that’s when I feel the pain. I’ve been electrocuted, falling to the ground with a thud. Confusion hits me.

“what…happened?”

I look up and standing over me is the most beautiful creature I had ever seen. Her eyes glaring at me, not an ounce of fear, her eyes were like a stormy sea; long dark locks of hair in a wave down her back, skin like porcelain. So strong and yet, beneath it all, a soul so pure…

I was broken out of my daze by a hand coming across my face hard.

“what happened?! You tried to kill me is what happened! Who do you think you are?!”

“I was hungry, you are human, aren’t you?” I say standing up, hmm this girl is taller than me…

“you’re one of them, aren’t you?” to my surprise she does not look at me with disgust or hatred as other humans do. Instead she holds out her hand, I look and she’s handing me a blood bag. I look up at her in confusion.

“I know it’s not as good as the real thing, but it should help; here take it” she says sympathetically placing the bag in my hand I had not realized was outstretched.

I am speechless, I stare back and forth between her and the blood bag a few times before she gives me a slight smile and nods. I place the bag to my lips and the blood pours down my throat, moaning a little; she was right, it was not as good as the real thing but, damn it was GOOD.

“better?” she asked

“much. Thank you…?”

“Azami. my name is Azami. and you are welcome… And what should I call you?”

No one’s ever asked my name before, let alone used it…this human is peculiar

“my name is Saya.”

She smiles again and I can’t help but smile back. What is wrong with me? the strange, beautiful human turns and begins walking away from me. it’s then i notice the sword sheathed on her side. a samurai? she turns her head to look at me once again. “well? you coming or what?”

“why should i trust you, human?”

“was my giving you my blood not enough to convince you?”

that was her blood? why would this human do this? she turns back and continues walking away down the path. i sigh. fine; i’ll play, but only because i want to know what this humans game is. not because her hair smells like jasmine…ugh. i catch up to her quickly and we walk in silence for what seems like an eternity. i don’t realise i have not taken my eyes off of her, she smirks, flipping her hair back over her shoulder. “you must have questions. you’ve been staring at me for the last ten minutes.”

i quickly turn my head away. am i blushing? slowly i turn to look at her again, she’s looking at me curiously; her eyes sparkle in the moonlight.

clearing my throat “so where are we going anyway?”…

“you rely too much on your baser instincts, you let the animal side control you. i want to teach you, there’s more to you than that. i’ve decided, i’m going to teach you the ways of my clan. control. technique. humanity..”

“why?….why would you do this for someone like me? you don’t even know me; i just tried to eat you.”

“i know. there was just something in your eyes that made me want to help you.”

she held her sincerity and compassion on her sleeve; that sort of person could get themselves killed..no longer in a haze of hunger i’m able to think clearly. i make a decision that will protect this human no matter what; especially from myself.

Chapter Two – Love gained and lost

6 Months Later…..

The clash of metal can be heard throughout the compound as we bring our swords together, grunting in effort. We’ve been at this swordplay for little over an hour now and though I was only slightly tired, I could tell Azami was exhausted, she won’t last much longer. “getting tired? Ready to give up?” I tease her. “not even close.” She grins lunging forward with her sword, I have the advantage when it comes to speed and so I easily dodge her attack, swinging my sword knocking hers out of her hand pointing my sword to her throat in victory, I smile “I win”. Lowering my sword dropping it to the ground with a clang, and walking off to grab my towel.

“you’re really fast; I don’t think I have any more to teach you. The student has surpassed the master” she giggles and takes a drink of water from the fountain. The sight mesmerises me, her laugh is like bells, the most beautiful sound. “ready to hit the baths?” she breaks me out of my thoughts. I’m always losing focus around her.

“yeah, sure, let’s go” we head off to the bathhouse, which houses a large natural hot spring. Stripping down I lower myself into the water wincing with slight pain from the earlier training session. I can’t help the moan I let out when my body sinks into the healing waters; I love baths, I can feel myself slightly dozing off when I feel soft fingers on my face brushing my unruly hair out of my face then tracing my jaw. I open my eyes only to find Azami’s looking intently at me, reaching up to cup her face in my hand gently. “you’re so beautiful” she whispers as if to herself. I am overwhelmed by a feeling unfamiliar to me; slowly leaning in closer to her til our foreheads and lips are brushing against each other, she takes the last few centimetres and her soft lips are against mine in the softest of kisses; I kiss her back deepening our embrace. I am home.

i wake up in agony; i had forgotten to eat yesterday, mentally slapping myself, soo hungry…that’s when that familiar scent hits my nose, i turn to the person sleeping next to me; last night had been perfect, and now i was struggling to remember anything but how delicious she smells..no i can’t do this, please don’t make me. i lean in closer, the animal inside is taking over, my nose up against her throat i take a deep inhale, teeth now bared. closer i can feel my sharp canine teeth begin to pierce my prays flesh. “NO!!” i scream, launching myself backwards with such strength i hit my head against the wall behind me. this comotion finally awakens Azami who sits up frantically looking around until she spots me, up against the wall now with my head in my hands, shaking. she rushes over to me. “Saya?! are you ok? what happened?”

Tears begin streaming uncontrollably down my cheeks, i take her hand in mine and place it over the small puncture wound on her neck, letting go of her; i have no right to touch her. confused she looks at her fingers now with blood on them gasping. “Saya…”

“i’m so sorry! i never wanted to hurt you! i couldn’t control it, i so sorry!” i cry, shrinking into myself; she’ll never forgive me..

“but you did control yourself Saya”. she lifts my face up with her gentle loving hands to look at her; she wipes away my tears with her thumb. “you stopped yourself and i’m so proud of you, it’s only a little cut, see.” she leans in cautiously softly kissing me, looking me in the eye she smiles that smile i love.

“i…i love you Azami”

“i love you too Saya, soo much” she takes me into a deep embrace then gets up taking me with her, my hand in hers “now, how about we go get you something to eat?”

after we had eaten, i turn to Azami, taking her hand in mine. “Azami…i never want to hurt you…i need to protect you, even if its from me.”

“what are you saying Saya?”

“i will make a contract with you that can never be broken; a promise, that i can never again kill a human.”

“but, Saya; are you sure? how will you live without eating humans?”

“i will hunt old ones instead.”

“alright Saya; if this is what you want”

“i want to keep you safe. you are all that matters to me in this world Azami.”

And so the pact was written. i could no longer harm humans, nor consume their flesh. and so i became the feared one amongst the old ones; the one who kills and consumes her own kind in order to live; and more importantly, to protect the woman i love.

Weeks later….

i was walking home from gathering ingrediants to cook Azami our anniversary dinner tonight, all her favorite foods, i smile to myself thinking about what we might do after dinner..thats when i heard it; the crash from a building nearby and a blood curdling scream. i recognised the voice “Azami!” i sprinted in the direction of the scream, spilling the food on the ground. i turn the corner and the sight before me is monstrous. a bat shaped humanoid old one had crashed through the dojo by our home and had found her. i was too late; the old one had torn her in pieces before it looked up at me, dropping her leg in the process. all i saw was red, a wretched cry screamed it’s way from my throat as i ran at the monster who had taken my love from me. tearing into it with my bare hands, even using my teeth, i tear out its jugular killing it instantly, now covered in blood i fall to the ground next to what remains of Azami; the tears are a river from my eyes “no no no please no” i cry but it’s too late, there’s nothing i can do. her beautiful eyes are closed as if she were sleeping i smooth her hair out of her untouched face. the rain has now begun to pelt onto us. i gather her body into my arms cradling her to my chest. “NO!!!” my scream of agonized grief fills the night air. I am alone.

Commentary

I decided to write a prequel to the cult Anime Series created by CLAMP. Blood-C. the tale of how Saya became under a contract with someone to not be able to eat humans has never been revealed and so I took the opportunity to write my own spin on what could have happened.

The story starts off with Saya at a future time, thinking back on the past and how she is now trying to break her “curse” so that she can eat humans again as she hates humans. She then explains her world and her role in it.

The story begins with Saya meeting her girlfriend Azami. a Japanese Edo Period Samurai who takes Saya in and teaches her how to fight and Saya gains some humanity and the two end up falling in love.

Saya out of the need to protect Azami from her; makes a contract that binds Saya to not be able to harm humans.

The fateful night comes when Saya stumbles upon the massacre of her beloved and is enraged sparking a century long killing spree up until she is caught and experimented on in the Anime.

The Anime uses elements from H.P. Lovecraft’s Cthulu Mythos and so I attempted to use these elements within my fanfiction.

Week 5 – Cult TV

In the opening section of their book which discussed the television series Buffy the Vampire Slayer. Wilcox & Lavery (2002) set out to see how well the show fared against a set of attributes media scholar Robert Thompson felt were exhibited by “quality television”. For this blog post, I will be applying some of these attributes to HBO’s Baltimore set drama The Wire.

The first attribute discussed was one which related to the pedigree of a show’s creator. Wilcox & Lavery (2002) noted that while Joss Whedon’s work prior to the development of Buffy consisted mostly of being a sort of doctor for film screenplays. His pedigree comes from being part of a lineage of television writers who contributed to a number of popular shows of the 20th century. In the case of The Wire though, its creator’s pedigree arguably comes from their past work and experience. Prior to The Wire, David Simon (the show’s creator) was a crime journalist at The Baltimore Sun for over 13 years. During which he released his first novel titled Homicide: A Year on the Killing Streets. Which went on to win an Edgar Award and was eventually adapted into an award-winning television series that lasted for over seven seasons on NBC (Britannica, 2019).

The second attribute discussed referred to the ongoing struggle of a show’s viability in the eyes of its broadcaster. Whilst critically acclaimed throughout its run, the amount of people who actually tuned in to watch The Wire could be described as middling, especially when compared with the viewership of other HBO shows of the time. With Simon citing a myriad of factors for its low ratings such as the show’s timeslot, or its heavy use of regional dialects and urban terminology that would have alienated some viewers.

The presence of an ensemble cast is also noted as being another attribute of quality television. The Wire featured an expansive cast of actors that included the likes of Idris Elba, Michael B. Jordan and Lance Reddick. Who alongside their fellow cast members played roles ranging from police officers and gang members/criminals which are common place in crime drama and police procedurals, to anything from local politicians and dock employees.  Each of these characters are integral in helping accurately portray the various facets of Baltimore life the show attempted to explore. Which in itself lead to the show feeling like a blend of multiple genres at times. Which in itself is another defining aspect of “quality television” (Wilcox & Lavery, 2002). With scenes involving mayoral candidates and state senators giving the show the kind of overtly political undertones you’d expect from something created by the likes of Aaron Sorkin, and interactions between gang members and police giving The Wire its crime drama feel.

Lastly, there is memory. As noted in Wilcox & Lavery (2002), Whedon expressed disappointment over shows such as the X-Files whose characters seemingly forgot interactions or events in prior episodes. Both the characters of The Wire and the show itself however retain memories of past events. And use them to propel story arcs forward. Whether they be the death of recurring characters or a violent altercation. A prime example is the character of Omar Little, the show’s recurring stick up (a form of robbery) artist who enters a seemingly endless cycle of revenge and violence with the show’s focal gangs due to the death of a love interest.

If there is another characteristic to be added to this list. I would say that whether a show is discussed long after its run could be used as a defining characteristic of “quality television”. Something which Buffy fits the criteria for given talk about reboots or its use in a certain course at an Auckland based university. Or in the case of The Wire, its moniker of sometimes being referred to as the “best tv show ever” even to this day.

References

Augustyn, A. (2019). David Simon. Retrieved September 16, 2019, from https://www.britannica.com/biography/David-Simon

Wilcox, R., & Lavery, D. (2002). Introduction. In Fighting the forces: What’s at stake in buffy the vampire slayer (pp. 3-9). Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield.